What are the reasons of Female Infertility in women?

 What are the reasons of Female Infertility in women?

Infertility is defined as a year of unsuccessful attempts to become pregnant with frequent, unprotected sex.

Female factors cause infertility around one-third of the time, while both female and male factors cause infertility about one-third of the time. In the other cases, the explanation is either unknown or a combination of male and female variables. The causes of female infertility can be difficult to pinpoint.

Symptoms of female infertility

The inability to conceive is the most common sign of infertility. You may not be ovulating if your menstrual cycle is excessively lengthy (35 days or more), too short (less than 21 days), irregular, or missing. There may be no other symptoms or indicators.

Causes of female infertility

Every step of the human reproduction process must go smoothly in order for pregnancy to occur. The following are the steps in this process:

  • A mature egg is released from one of the two ovaries.

  • The fallopian tube picks up the egg and transports it to the uterus.

  • Sperm go up the cervix, into the uterus, and into the fallopian tube to fertilise the egg.

  • The fertilised egg moves to the uterus via the fallopian tube.

  • The fertilised egg develops and attaches (implants) to the inside of the uterus.

A variety of factors can hinder this process in women at any point. Infertility in women is caused by one or more of the following factors:

  1. Ovulation disorders

The majority of cases of infertility are caused by ovulating infrequently or not at all. Ovulation abnormalities can be caused by issues with the hypothalamus or pituitary gland’s regulation of reproductive hormones, as well as issues with the ovary.

  • Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome: PCOS results in a hormonal imbalance that interferes with ovulation. PCOS is linked to insulin resistance, obesity, abnormal facial or body hair growth, and acne. It’s the most common cause of infertility in women.

  • Hypothalamic dysfunction: The pituitary gland produces two chemicals that stimulate ovulation each month: follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) (LH). Excessive physical or emotional stress, extreme body weight gain or reduction, or a recent significant weight gain or loss can all alter hormone production and impact ovulation. The most prevalent symptoms are irregular or nonexistent menstruation.

  • Primary ovarian insufficiency: Premature ovarian failure, also known as autoimmune ovarian failure, is caused by an autoimmune response or the premature loss of eggs from your ovary, which can be caused by genetics or chemotherapy. In women under the age of 40, the ovary no longer produces eggs and estrogen production is reduced.

  • Too much prolactin: Excess prolactin secretion (hyperprolactinemia) by the pituitary gland lowers oestrogen production and can lead to infertility. It’s also possible that medications you’re taking for another ailment are causing this.

  1. 2.Damage to fallopian tubes (tubal infertility)

Damaged or obstructed fallopian tubes prevent sperm from reaching the egg or prevent the fertilised egg from entering the uterus. Damage or obstruction of the fallopian tube can be caused by a variety of factors, including:

  • An infection of the uterus and fallopian tubes caused by chlamydia, gonorrhoea, or other sexually transmitted infections causes pelvic inflammatory disease.

  • Previous abdominal or pelvic surgery, such as surgery for ectopic pregnancy, which occurs when a fertilised egg implants and grows elsewhere other than the uterus, generally in a fallopian tube. 3.Endometriosis

Endometriosis is a condition in which tissue that normally grows in the uterus implants in other parts of the body. Scarring from this additional tissue growth — and its surgical removal — can block fallopian tubes and prevent an egg and sperm from fusing.

  • Endometriosis can potentially prevent the fertilised egg from implanting. Indirect effects of the illness, such as damage to the sperm or egg, appear to have an impact on fertility.

4.Uterine or cervical causes

Several uterine or cervical factors can prevent the egg from implanting or raise the chances of miscarriage:
  • In the uterus, benign polyps or tumours (fibroids or myomas) are frequent. Some can obstruct fallopian tubes or prevent implantation, reducing fertility. Many women with fibroids or polyps do, however, become pregnant.

  • Problems with the uterus, such as an abnormally shaped uterus, might make it difficult to get pregnant or bear children.

  • Cervical stenosis is a constriction of the cervix caused by a hereditary abnormality or cervix damage.

  • The cervix doesn't always create the right type of mucus to allow sperm to pass through and into the uterus.

The cause of infertility is sometimes never discovered. Unexpected reproductive issues could be caused by a combination of small variables in both partners. Although it's aggravating to receive no precise response, this issue will eventually resolve itself. Infertility therapy, on the other hand, should not be put off.

Risk factors

Infertility can be exacerbated by a number of circumstances, including:

  • Age: The quality and quantity of a woman’s eggs start to deteriorate as she gets older. The rate of follicle loss accelerates in the mid-30s, leading in fewer and lower-quality eggs. This makes it more difficult to conceive and raises the chances of miscarriage.

  • Smoking: Smoking raises your chances of miscarriage and ectopic pregnancy, in addition to harming your cervix and fallopian tubes. It’s also known to prematurely age your ovaries and reduce your eggs. Before starting fertility treatment, you should quit smoking.

  • Weight: Ovulation might be hampered by being overweight or considerably underweight. Increasing the frequency of ovulation and the likelihood of conception by achieving a healthy body mass index (BMI).

  • Sexual history: The fallopian tubes can be damaged by sexually transmitted illnesses including chlamydia and gonorrhoea. Having unprotected intercourse with several partners raises your risk of contracting a sexually transmitted infection, which can lead to fertility issues in the future.

  • Alcohol: Excessive alcohol use might have a negative impact on fertility.


These suggestions may be useful for women who are planning to become pregnant soon or in the future:

  • Ovulation issues are more common in overweight and underweight women. Moderate exercise is recommended if you need to lose weight. Ovulation has been linked to strenuous, intensive activity for more than five hours per week.

  • Stop smoking. Tobacco has a number of detrimental impacts on fertility, general health, and the health of a foetus. If you’re thinking about starting a family, now is the time to quit smoking.

  • Avoid consuming alcoholic beverages. Heavy drinking can lead to a loss of fertility. And any alcohol consumption during pregnancy can have a negative impact on the fetus’s health. Avoid alcohol if you’re planning to become pregnant, and don’t drink while you’re pregnant.

  • According to certain research, stress might lead to couples having less success with infertility therapy. Before attempting to conceive, try to lower your stress levels.

Infertility can be both physically and emotionally draining. Consider the following techniques to cope with the ups and downs of infertility testing and treatment:

  • To assist you and your partner in preparing for your therapy, ask your doctor to describe the steps. Understanding the procedure may help you feel less anxious.

  • Although infertility is a highly personal matter, seek help from your partner, close relatives and friends, or a professional. Many online support groups allow you to talk about infertility concerns without having to reveal your identity.

  • Maintaining a moderate exercise programme and eating a nutritious diet will help you maintain a positive attitude and keep you focused on living your life despite your fertility issues.

  • Early on in the infertility treatment process, consider alternatives such as adoption, donor sperm or eggs, or perhaps having no children. This can help with anxiety during treatments and disappointment if you don’t get pregnant.

Infertility is a very stressful situation. Reach out to your healthcare practitioner if you’ve been trying to get pregnant for 12 months without success — or six months if you’re over 35. Once you’ve been diagnosed, your healthcare practitioner can assist you in devising a strategy for going forward.


  1. https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/female-infertility/symptoms-causes/syc-20354308

  2. https://my.clevelandclinic.org/health/diseases/17774-female-infertility

  3. https://www.nichd.nih.gov/health/topics/infertility/conditioninfo/causes/causes-female

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