I came across a quote that God could not reach everywhere so he created Mothers! Indeed, it is true. One of the most precious moments for a woman is when she is on the verge to become a Mother. It is a long process with tonnes of physical, physiological and emotional changes. Pregnancy is not only limited to giving birth, the repercussions are seen after the birth of an infant which is known as Postpartum stress disorder.

One of the fundamental things required while planning a child is the CONSENT of both the parents, especially the mother-to-be. As the woman will undergo a tremendous change in a couple of months, she has to be mentally, physically and physiologically sound.


Not all intercourse results in pregnancy. Only and only when the sperm and ovum fuse in the Ampulla region in the Fallopian tube of a woman, Fertilisation occurs successfully. The fused cell undergoes a division process resulting in a zygote. At this stage, the gender of the child is already decided. After a further division process, the zygote differentiates into an Embryo, which in turn gets attached to the uterus. This entire process is called Implantation, which leads to Pregnancy.


After implantation has occurred, with the uterine tissues and maternal blood, a structural and functional unit called Placenta is formed. The placenta connects the embryo/foetus with the maternal body. It facilitates the supply of oxygen and nutrients to the embryo and removes carbon dioxide and excretory products produced by the embryo. The placenta is connected to the Embryo via an Umbilical cord, which helps the transfer of nutrients to and fro.

The placenta produces some important hormones which are present only during pregnancy in a woman. They include Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), Human Placental lactogen (hpl) and Relaxin. Estrogen and progesterone levels increase severalfold times in the maternal blood during pregnancy. With the help of a proper blood test or urine test, a woman can come to know about her pregnancy due to the presence of the above hormones.

The entire journey of 9 months has its own significance. Each month the embryo undergoes changes. In the first month, the human heart is formed and becomes functional. By the end of 3rd month, the major organs and genitals are formed in the foetus. By the end of 9 months, the foetus is fully developed for delivery.

A common condition in females which is faced by 10% of the population is Infertility. It is the inability to get a successful pregnancy even after trying for straight 12 months due to some limiting factors. In heterosexual couples, 1/3rd issues are due to male problems, 1/3rd issues are due to female problems and the rest 1/3rd remain miscellaneous. Infertility caused due to a woman’s limiting factor is called female infertility.

CAUSES OF FEMALE INFERTILITY – there are many factors affecting infertility. Here are a few points jotted down due to which infertility occurs. Certain factors can be brought under control and certain can be treated with medication or surgery.

·         Physical issues – to conceive, a woman needs to have a healthy female reproductive organ. It includes ovaries. The fallopian tube, uterus, etc. These organs play an important role in conceiving and pregnancy. Ovulation is the most important factor for a woman who is planning to conceive. Every month a woman of her reproductive age normally releases an egg for fertilization. If intercourse occurs during ovulation and sperm is successful enough to fertilize the egg, it results in fertilization. Due to certain reasons egg is not released regularly. These include a woman’s hormonal imbalance, eating disorder, disease like thyroid, severe stress, etc.

·         Issues with egg and their count – a woman is born with n number of eggs which are released every month after she attains puberty. Due to some or other reason, there results in a shortage of eggs released before menopause which results in infertility. There can be instances of issues in eggs also; having a wrong number of chromosomes, cannot fertilize and grow into a healthy foetus, etc.

·         Age factor – the reducing fertility after the age of 30 is observed in women which increases the complications while conceiving. Thus experts advise planning a family before both parents exceed the age of 30.

·         Structural abnormalities – a woman can have a few glitches in her body, which become observable during her pregnancy. They include – cervical insufficiency, double uterus, surgeries, etc. Due to these reasons chances of infertility increase.

·         Woman’s medical condition – uncontrolled diabetes, hypothyroidism or hyperthyroidism in the mother does not give a favourable condition in conceiving and leads to infertility.

TREATMENTS FOR FEMALE INFERTILITY - Infertility is a natural phenomenon; it is not under anyone’s control. This does not stop a woman from being a mother for the rest of her life.

1.  In vitro fertilisation (IVF) – with the advent of biotechnology, a test tube baby has now become a ray of hope to parents with few complications.

2.  Surrogacy – a woman with a defective mitochondrion has issues with conceiving and becoming a mother, if a healthy mitochondria donor from a woman is received, motherhood can be experienced. Surrogacy laws have now become stricter due to violations and exploitation of the surrogate mother. Parents plan a child in a surrogate and then abandon her, leaving the surrogate woman frustrated and aimless.

3.  Adoption – there are so many children who have been abandoned due to certain reasons and they end up in orphanages. Adopting a child does not only give home and shelter but also builds the future of the child.

MYTHS RELATED TO IN VITRO FERTILIZATION – medical science has advanced in these years. Even the tiniest problem in the human body has a way forward in form of treatment. When it comes to a woman’s fertility issue, she tends to feel helpless until a confidant assures her and shows her the correct path. In vitro fertilization has arrived as a boon for many women who wish to be mothers but could not conceive naturally.

The ICHHORI website is catering for the reader's needs by providing accurate information on women's health, lifestyle, laws, etc. Here are a few myths that should be made clear to the women who are trying to opt for in vitro fertilization:

·         There are no other risks accompanied by IVF – it is natural that few female hormones fluctuate during pregnancy, but it is only till the gestation period. Everything gets back on track after the delivery. The fertility medicines taken during this duration also do not have any further negative effects.

·         Abnormality in the foetus – while choosing IVF there will be millions of thoughts rushing through a woman’s head; it’s totally natural. Even while conceiving naturally, there is this fear of genetic disorders, abnormalities and deformities in the newborn. All these issues can occur naturally and in vitro too, but the chances are very less. It is not necessary that in vitro chances of abnormality are higher than natural conceiving.

·         Hospitalization and all pain is a myth – for an IVF, only when the couple needs to undergo a check-up, when the eggs have to be collected, when the insemination has to occur, only then hospitalization has to take place. Rest is a natural process like a normal pregnancy.

A woman's condition becomes helpless and lowest when she is unable to conceive. All that can help is regular counselling, firm family support and compassion to rebuild her trust. Alternative methods like those mentioned above can also help a woman become a mother.

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