What to do if you are diagnosed with diabetes?

 What to do if you are diagnosed with diabetes?

When you get to know that you have diabetes it’s obvious you must have gone through several tests including blood test and urine test but you must know the type of diabetes you are having. There are different types of diabetes with different causes, but each type has a common problem of having increased sugar level. To know the type of diabetes you need to consult the doctor with further tests. 

What is diabetes? 

Diabetes is a disease which occurs when there is an increased level of sugar in the bloodstream. 

The food we eat, after digestion, is broken down into various nutrients including glucose. The glucose requires insulin to get into the cell walls to produce energy in the body. Insulin is a hormone made by pancreas which acts as a key to unlock the cell walls of the body and allows glucose to enter the cell walls. Glucose provides the energy to organs and tissues to function properly. 

If the pancreas doesn’t make insulin or enough insulin or the body’s cells don’t respond to insulin, the level of glucose rises causing diabetes.

What are the different types of diabetes?

The major types of diabetes:

Type 1 diabetes- In this the body attacks itself, as the insulin producing cells in pancreas are destroyed. Upto 10 % of people have type 1 diabetes mostly seen in children and young adults. In this type, people have to take insulin every day.

Type 2 diabetes- In this type, either the body doesn’t make enough insulin or the body’s cells don’t respond to the insulin. Upto 95% of people have type 2 diabetes mostly seen in middle aged people and older people. 

Prediabetes- This is the condition before type 2 diabetes where the blood glucose level is higher than normal but not high enough to be called type 2 diabetes.

Gestational diabetes- This is the type of diabetes which occurs in some women during their pregnancy and goes away after it. But having gestational diabetes means having a higher risk of type 2 diabetes later in life.

Less common types of diabetes are :

Monogenic diabetes syndrome- These are rare inherited diabetes seen in only 4 % of all the cases. 

Cystic fibrosis-related diabetes- This is the type of diabetes found in people already with the disease.

Drug or chemical-induced diabetes- This type happens mostly after organ transplant, following HIV/AIDS treatment or with glucocorticoid steroid use.

Causes of diabetes

Type 1 diabetes:  In this the body attacks the insulin producing cells and causes increased glucose. Genes are also a cause in some cases and viruses may also increase the immune system attack. 

Type 2 diabetes: In this the body cells don’t allow insulin to do its work.

Gestational diabetes: Hormones produced by the placenta during pregnancy makes the body’s cells more resistant to insulin increasing the glucose level in the blood stream.

Symptoms of diabetes: 

• Increase in thirst

• Weakness

• Blurred vision

• Numbness in the hands or feet

• Slow-healing in sores or cuts

• Loss of weight

• Frequent urination

• Frequent unexplained infections

• Dry and itchy skin, and frequent yeast infections or urinary tract infections in women

• Decrease in sex drive, erectile dysfunction, decreased muscle strength in men

Diabetes in women

According to a study in Annals of Internal Medicine, the death rate for men with diabetes fell between 1971 and 2000 but the death rate for women remained the same. 

The death rate was higher among women, but now men have higher rates of type 2 diabetes.

The study also shows diabetes affects women and men.

Global reports from 2014 by the World Health Organization (WHO)Trusted Source state that there were an estimated 422 million adults dealing with diabetes, much higher from 108 million reported back in 1980. This shows an increase in the disease. 

Women with diabetes may experience many of the same symptoms as men but some symptoms are unique to women i.e vaginal and oral yeast infections and vaginal thrush, urinary infection, lowered libido, and PCOS. Gestational diabetes is specific to pregnant women and happens to almost 10 percent of pregnancies. 

How is diabetes diagnosed?

Diabetes is diagnosed by checking the glucose level through a blood test. Three tests are carried out to measure the blood glucose level: fasting glucose test, random glucose test and A1c test. There are two blood glucose tests for pregnant women- a glucose challenge test, you drink a sugary liquid and your glucose level and an oral glucose tolerance test.

Managing diabetes :-

 Diabetes affects the whole body, to manage diabetes some steps are to be taken :

• Keeping the blood sugar level normal with proper diet plan and regular exercise. 

• Maintaining blood cholesterol level to normal range.

• Controlling blood pressure level which should not exceed 140/90 mm Hg.

• Blood control pills increase the glucose level of the body, so low doses of pills must be taken when required.

• Taking proper medication and insulin prescribed by the doctor and also following the instructions given.

• Quitting smoking

What should my blood glucose level be?

Before a meal, it is said to be between 80 and 130 mg/dL in a healthy person. Two hours after the start of a meal it should be less than 180 mg/dL.

Importance of blood sugar level check 

Checking the blood sugar level is important because the results help to make decisions on what to eat and what not to, required physical activity and any needed medication and insulin adjustments or something other than that. It can be checked using a blood glucose meter. 


Whenever you get to know that you are having diabetes, don’t panic as it is curable. Go for the test of type of diabetes, monitor your symptoms, consult a doctor, get yourself tested. Whichever type you are having, go for medication and follow the doctor’s instructions. Don’t avoid it as it could be dangerous at times. Try to manage your diabetes and keep a regular check of your blood sugar level. 

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