It is not always necessary that conceiving is successful for every couple. A common condition in females which is faced by 10% of the population is Infertility. It is the inability to get a successful pregnancy even after trying for straight 12 months due to some limiting factors. In heterosexual couples, 1/3rd of issues are due to male problems, 1/3rd of issues are due to female problems, and the rest 1/3rd remain miscellaneous. Infertility caused due to a woman’s limiting factor is called female infertility.

Not all intercourse results in pregnancy. Only and only when the sperm and ovum fuse in the Ampulla region in the Fallopian tube of a woman, Fertilisation occurs successfully. The fused cell undergoes a division process resulting in a zygote. At this stage, the gender of the child is already decided. After a further division process, the zygote differentiates into an Embryo, which in turn gets attached to the uterus. This entire process is called Implantation, which leads to Pregnancy.

After implantation has occurred, with the uterine tissues and maternal blood, a structural and functional unit called Placenta is formed. The placenta connects the embryo/fetus with the maternal body. It facilitates the supply of oxygen and nutrients to the embryo and removes carbon dioxide and excretory products produced by the embryo. The placenta is connected to the Embryo via an Umbilical cord, which helps the transfer of nutrients to and fro.

To conceive, a woman needs to have a healthy female reproductive organ. It includes ovaries. The fallopian tube, uterus, etc. These organs play an important role in conceiving and pregnancy. Ovulation is the most important factor for a woman who is planning to conceive. Every month a woman of her reproductive age normally releases an egg for fertilization. If intercourse occurs during ovulation and sperm is successful enough to fertilize the egg, it results in fertilization. Due to certain reasons, eggs are not released regularly. These include a woman’s hormonal imbalance, eating disorder, disease like thyroid, severe stress, etc.

Infertility is not only on the woman’s side; it also can be on the men's. Infertility in men is caused due to problems like varicocele; in this condition veins on men’s testicles become too large which heats up the testicles resulting in abnormality in the number and shape of sperms. The sperm count of sperm is less or not at all if a man is infertile. All these conditions arise due to heavy drug abuse, cigarettes, age, chemotherapy, etc.

INFERTILITY IN A WOMAN – female infertility can be marked by problems in ovulation. There can be a shortage of eggs or an inability to release eggs during ovulation. Some clear signs of issues in ovulation include irregularity or absence of periods. Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) and primary ovarian insufficiency (POI) are prime reasons behind women’s infertility.

A woman undergoes several changes in her body since she attains puberty. A regular menstruation cycle is a sign of a healthy reproductive organ. Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) is a common endocrine disorder observed in women of reproductive age between 14- 47.  A woman secretes a few amounts of male hormones called Androgen in normal conditions but during PCOS the amount increases manifold. In the case of PCOS primarily affects the menstrual cycle of a woman, to overcome this, one can with the help of expert opinion take medicine to regulate the hormonal imbalance. A disease diagnosed and treated at a primary stage can always be taken under control. The woman who is facing such issues should always keep patience and faith in the expert as well as herself. Such kinds of disorders are seen in many women; at least one out of eight women undergo PCOS or PCOD in their entire life. The infertility issue can be done right with fertility drugs, and treatment. Ovulation induction also occurs via oral medicine.

A woman is born with several eggs which are released every month after she attains puberty. Due to some other reasons, there results in a shortage of eggs released before menopause which results in infertility. This situation is called primary ovarian insufficiency. It can occur due to a genetic defect or chemotherapy. There can be issues in the egg also; having a wrong number of chromosomes, cannot fertilize and grow into a healthy fetus, etc. The reducing fertility after the age of 30 is observed in women which increases the complications while conceiving. Thus experts advise planning a family before both parents exceed the age of 30. With the increase in age, the count of eggs reduces with degrading quality.  

DIAGNOSIS OF INFERTILITY – with the above consequences, the couple planning to have a child should undergo a certain screening test to assure of the abnormalities. Nowadays medical science has become advanced with technology, and diagnosis and treatment are hassle-free. Here are a few tests which both men and women can undergo to confirm infertility.

·         Regular ovulation – the first and foremost basic test in a woman is that of ovulation. Regular checking of her morning body temperature, cervical mucus, etc., and keeping a track of it can help a doctor diagnose properly. Ovulation can also be checked by blood tests and ultrasound of the ovaries to observe abnormality.

·         X-ray of the uterus – a special dye is injected into the vagina of the woman and the doctor observes the movement of the dye in the uterus and fallopian tube. If any kind of blockage occurs, it is observed in the x-ray and doctors can confirm where the issue is.

·         Laparoscopy – a small cut is made on the lower abdominal area of the woman to observe the ovaries, fallopian tube, and uterus for any kind of physical problems with the help of a tool light; laparoscope. Scars and endometriosis are observed in this test.

·         Semen test – in men, doctors usually take a sample of semen to test the abnormalities. The study can reveal abnormalities like the number of sperm, the shape of sperm, the movement of sperm, the level of the male hormone, etc. All these issues can be treated with medicine, surgery, and therapy.

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