How to avoid pregnancy after sex?

 How to avoid pregnancy after sex?

Sexually active people should be aware of the birth control options to avoid pregnancy after sex. To avoid pregnancy after sex, many contraception options are available. If you are ovulating, then the safest method would be to not have sex.

According to the UK FPA (Family Planning Association), it is claimed that 90% women who do not use contraception get pregnant within 12 months. Using contraception is must, if you do not get pregnant. To avoid pregnancy after sex, there are many methods. Every method has its own advantages and disadvantages. Let’s read about different types of methods: 

1.Barrier methods

This method is used for preventing the sperm from reaching the egg. Following are some barrier methods:

  • Male condoms: Condoms do not only protect you from getting pregnant but also keep you protected against the STIs i.e. sexually transmitted infections. As per the CDC (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention), male condoms are 80% effective and trusted source against pregnancy. You have to make sure that you use the condom correctly. You can easily by the condoms without a prescription from online, drugstores and supermarkets. 
  • Female condoms: These condoms can also be used easily and are easily available without a prescription. These are less trusted compared to male condoms. 
  • Diaphragm: A diaphragm is placed inside the vagina for contraception purposes. Each time you use diaphragm, you have to apply spermicide. These are 90% effective as per a trusted source. Before having intercourse, the diaphragm has to be inserted. You can remove it after 24 hours of having sex. It is to be noted that, this method does not protect you against sexually transmitted diseases. 
  • Cervical cap: It is a soft silicone cup which is placed deep inside the vagina to stop sperm from reaching an egg. As per a source, it is 75 to 85% effective. These are available online and in drugstore. 
  • Sponge: The sponge is also placed deep inside the vagina and can be bought without a prescription. It contains spermicide and is made of polyurethane. It is 76 to 88% effective and will give you further protection if used with condom. They can be bought online. 
  • Spermicide: It is one of the most common barrier methods. It is a chemical that is used for inactivating the sperm. This can be also used with condoms. You can insert it close to cervix, 10 minutes before having sex. It is 61% effective and remains active for approximately 1 hour. They can be bought either online or from the drugstore. It is to be noted that that you should consult the doctor before using it. 
  1. Hormonal methods

To stop ovulation, hormonal methods are used for preventing pregnancy. Hormonal contraceptives can only be taken if prescribed by the doctors. It should be noted that they cannot be protected against the sexually transmitted diseases. 

  • Contraceptive pills: Usually, contraceptive pills come in two types. One type of contraceptive pill stops your menstruation whereas the other one does not. Contraceptive pills are the most commonly used ways of protection from being pregnant. As per the UK National Health Service, contraceptive pills are 99% effective. 
  • Patches: As per NHS, if you correctly use the patch, it is 99% effective. The contraceptive patch can be placed on upper arm, stomach, buttocks and back. You must wear the patch for 3 weeks but allow your menstrual cycle to pass. Skin irritation can occur in some women. 
  • Injection: Every 12 weeks a contraceptive shot is given by the doctor. It is 90% effective if taken on time, as per the CDC. If you plan to get pregnant then you will have to wait for at least 10 months after you stop taking the injection. 
  • Vaginal Ring: Vaginal ring also called as the birth control ring is 99% effective but its effectiveness reduces to 95% because of the incorrect usage. The ring is placed inside the vagina for 3 weeks. Hormones are released by the ring for prevention of pregnancy. You should remove the ring for your menstrual cycle to take place and then place a new ring. 
  1. Implants and intrauterine devices

Implants and intrauterine devices are contraceptive devices which are used for long term. To prevent pregnancy, they are 99% effective. Due to human error, the effectiveness my get affected. STIs cannot be prevented with these contraceptive devices. 

  • IUDs: This contraceptive device is inserted by the doctor into the uterus. Usually there are two types of intrauterine devices viz. 

  • Copper based: The sperm is destroyed before entering the uterus. This IUD can prevent pregnancy for nearly 10 years.

  • Hormonal: It lasts for 5 years. This device stops ovulation completely. 

  • There are some adverse reactions after using these contraceptive devices like menstrual cramps, irregular periods and spotting between periods. 

  • Implants: Hormonal birth control is usually implants. A matchstick-sized rod in inserted by the doctor into the arm of the person which protects you against the pregnancy. Implants are also 99% effective as per CDC. Every 3 years, implants should be replaced. 

  1. Other Methods

Apart from the methods mentioned above there are some other methods like: 

  • Natural Family planning: You have to keep a track of your menstrual cycle to have natural family planning. You should avoid having sex for 6 to 9 days after your menstrual cycle is over. These 6 to 9 days are called the highly fertile days. As per CDC, natural family planning is 76% effective. 
  • Emergency contraception: There are some situations like not consuming contraceptive pill on time, broken condom, failed birth control or unprotected sex; in such cases emergency contraception is taken for reducing the risk of pregnancy. These are only for the purpose of emergencies but should not be replaced with regular birth control methods. Emergency contraception comes in two forms:
  • Contraceptive pill: This pill should be taken within 72 hours of intercourse. But, the sooner you take it, the more effective it will be. This pill can easily be purchased from a local medical store. 
  • Copper IUD: For preventing the pregnancy, cooper IUD an inserted within 5 days of having sex. If used within this time frame, copper IUD is 99.9% effective as per the planned pregnancy. 
  • Sterilization: For permanent reduction of fertility, this process can be taken by both men and women. This method is 99% effective as per the NHS for preventing pregnancy. STIs cannot be prevented with sterilization.
  • Sterilization in women is called tubal ligation. It involves sealing or clamping the fallopian tubes. It is quite a permanent solution. But in some cases, it was found that tubes could be reconnected resulting in pregnancy.
  • Sterilization in men is called vasectomy. In this process, tubes which carry sperm are snipped. There is no hospitalization required. In some cases vasectomy reversal is also possible. However, after reversal, full fertility is not restored. 

To avoid pregnancy after sex, there are contraceptive options available, ranging from implants, IUDs to hormonal pill or other barrier methods. People can try different methods and see which works the best for them. 

Before taking out any contraceptive measure, it is important that you speak to your doctor. There are many people who are very sexually active but less fertile and vice versa. So every measure will not work on them. 

One important thing to note is that condom (both male and female) is the only contraception method that keeps you protected against STIs. 


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