What are bipolar disorder and its symptoms?

 What are bipolar disorder and its symptoms?


Bipolar disorder is also popularly known as manic depression, is a type of mental health condition which leads to extreme mood swings including emotional highs which is also referred to as mania or hypomania and lows called depression.


Generally, people who are depressed often feel sad or hopeless and feel the loss of interest or pleasure in almost every activity they undertake. On the other hand, When your mood is in a state of mania or hypomania which is slightly lesser than extreme mania, there is a great tendency to be in euphoria or the sensation of being full of energy or unusually feeling irritated. 





These mood swings badly affect sleep schedule, energy, ability to participate in an activity, judgmental side, behavioral pattern and the ability to think freely.


People with bipolar disorder may face trouble in the management of daily life tasks at school or the workplace or in the maintenance of relationships. There is no prescribed cure for curing this disorder but there are many things that can be done to control the symptoms.


Symptoms of Bipolar disorder of it are as follows:-


There are different types of bipolar and related disorders including mania or hypomania and depression. Symptoms can cause unpredictable frequent changes in mood swings and behavioural patterns, leading to significant distress and difficulty in life.


1.Bipolar I disorder In bipolar I disorder there is a tendency of facing at least one manic episode that may be in preceding order or may be followed by hypomanic or such major depressive episodes. In some cases, mania has a slight tendency to cause a trigger called psychosis which generally means a break from reality.

2.Bipolar II disorder –  In bipolar II disorder you will at least go through with one major depressive episode and one hypomanic episode even if you have never had a manic episode.

3.Cyclothymic disorderIn this disorder, there are high chances that at least two years or one preceding year in children and teenagers — of many periods of having hypomania symptoms and periods of depressive symptoms.

Bipolar Disorder: Statistics:-


According to reports it is estimated that more than the population of South Africa which is approximately 60 million Indians suffer from mental disorders. The awful part is that the country lags worldwide in medical professionals and does expenditure on mental health issues.


JP Nadda recently gave the information in the Lok Sabha by quoting data from National Commission on Health. He quoted that approximate of nearly 10-20 million that is 1-2% of the Indian population suffers from severe mental health disorders and conditions such as schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. It is estimated that about 50 million which is 5% of the population suffers from common popular mental disorders like depression and anxiety.


World Health Organisation reports that India spends nearly 0.06% of its health budget on mental health well being. This budget is less than what  Bangladesh constitutes which is 0.44% of their health budget. It is known that most developed nations spend more than 4% of their budgets on mental-health well being, mental health research, its infrastructure, frameworks and talent pool. 


Bipolar Disorder: Role of Therapy:-


Psychotherapy, or which is popularly also known as "talk" therapy, is a significant part of treating bipolar disorder. When you are taking such therapy, you can freely put forth your feelings, thoughts, and behaviours which makes you sad and causes discomfort. Talk therapy is very useful in comprehending and hopefully reaching the solution to your minute problems which hurts your capability for proper functioning in your life and career. It also helps in the maintenance of a proper optimistic self-image.


The various types of psychotherapy used for the treatment of bipolar disorders are as follows:-


1.Behavioural therapy – This therapy is significant maintenance and to keep a check on behavioural pattern. This mainly generates a focus on an optimistic behavioural approach leading to the reduction of stress.

2.Cognitive therapy – This is one of the most important therapy since it widens many approaches. It includes proper learning skills for identification and modification of the simplistic patterns of thinking which accompanies the various mood shifts.

3.Interpersonal therapy – This therapy is undertaken to strengthen our relationships with our family, friends, acquaintances and peers. The main goal of this therapy is to mark the reduction of strains that may have been placed upon them due to sickness.

4.Social rhythm therapy – This therapy is significant for the development and maintenance of a proper normal sleep schedule and the lenient following of daily routines.

Different support groups provide people with care and love during bipolar disorder. Through the help of a support group, you would feel smothered with encouragement, learn coping skills, and you can also share concerns. As a result, you will be in less isolation. Anyone can benefit from a support group including family members and friends. They can comprehend themselves and the symptoms of the illness better, communicate their concerns with each other and most importantly indulge in a habit to support their loved ones.


Bipolar Disorder: Role of parents and friends:-


The first step for parents and friends whose loved ones are dealing with bipolar disorder is to accept the illness and the difficulties which come in handy with the disease. Whenever you are in frustration or guilt, remind yourself that bipolar disorder is not due to someone's fault. Acceptance of bipolar disorder brings together acknowledgement of those things which might not feel normal.


Here are some tips which you can follow to support your loved one's:-


Aware about bipolar disorder – You need to be wholly aware of everything regarding the symptoms and treatment of this disease. The better you know about bipolar disorder, the better you will have the ability to help your loved ones and help them to stable their mind.

Encouragement – There is a higher chance of a better prognosis the sooner you get your loved one treated for this disorder. Make your loved one understand how the process would be at ease once they seek professional help. 

Understanding – Smother your friend or family member with utmost love, care, encouragement, most importantly be a good listener. People who suffer from bipolar disorder do not ask for help upfront since they feel like a burden doing so. You have to be an extremely therapeutic person and remind them they are not a burden to you, you are always there to listen to them.

Being patient – The process of getting better demands time, even at the time when a person is going through treatment. Don’t keep high expectations of speedy recovery or a permanent cure. Show patience with them during the recovery period and try to prepare them for further setbacks and challenges which would follow as a result of treatment.



Living with a person suffering from bipolar disorder can lead to stress and tension in the home. It would feel like an unending challenge to support and cope up with their behavioural pattern, mood swings and their recovery. The strain could create a lot of mishaps but support, love, concern can make your loved one feel better.




Resources: Google, Healthline.com, Health concerning books.


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