How to Diagnose Skin Cancer? What is the early stage of Skin cancer?

 What is the early stage of skin cancer? Can we Diagnose it early?

Skin cancer, or the premature development of skin cells, is most often seen on sun-exposed skin. However, this particular type of cancer may also develop on parts of the skin that aren't normally exposed to the sun.

You might believe that areas with more sunshine and hotter temperatures have higher skin cancer cases. This isn't always the case, though. California and Florida, in fact, had fewer instances per 100,000 people in 2015 than states with milder temperatures, such as Wyoming, Montana, and Idaho, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

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The average age of a melanoma diagnosis is 63, notes the American Cancer Society. Melanoma is, nevertheless, one of the most common malignancies in young adults, particularly women. Melanoma is more common in women than in males before the age of 50. Melanoma affects twice as many men as women by the age of 65. By the age of 80, the rates had tripled. 

Long-term exposure to UV radiation from the sun raises the risk of acquiring skin cancer. Artificial UV radiation, such as that found in tanning beds, is also a factor. It is responsible for about 419,000 cases. 

Types of Skin Cancer and their Symptoms

1] Basal cell carcinoma

Basal cell carcinoma is most common in parts of the body that are exposed to the skin, such as the neck and face.

Basal cell carcinoma can take the following forms:

  • A waxy or pearly hump

  • A scar-like lesion that is flat, flesh-colored or orange.

  • A scabbing or bleeding sore that heals and reappears

2] Squamous cell carcinoma

Squamous cell carcinoma is most often seen on sun-exposed parts of the body, such as the skin, head, and hands. Squamous cell carcinoma is most likely to occur on parts of the skin that aren't often exposed to the sun in people with darker skin.

Squamous cell carcinoma can take the following forms:

  • A nodule that is solid and red in color.
  • A scaly, crusted lesion with a smooth base.

3] Melanoma

Melanoma will strike someone of any skin tone. Melanoma is more common on the palms and soles of individuals with darker skin tones, as well as under the fingernails and toenails.

Symptoms of melanoma Cancer include:

  • A broad brownish spot with darker speckles on the surface.
  • A mole that bleeds or changes color, scale, or texture.
  • A thin lesion with an uneven border and red, pink, white, brown, or blue-black parts.

Causes of Skin Cancer

The epidermis, or top layer of your skin, is where skin cancer starts. The epidermis is a thin layer that protects your skin by shedding skin cells on a regular basis. The epidermis is made up of three kinds of cells:

  • Squamous cells are the inner lining of the skin and are found only under the surface.
  • Underneath the squamous cells are basal cells, which contain new skin cells.
  • Melanocytes, which contain melanin, the pigment that gives skin its natural color, are found in the epidermis' lower layer. When you're in the light, the melanocytes create more melanin to help protect the deeper layers of your skin.

Your skin cancer's form and treatment choices are determined by when it starts.

Other possible effects include ultraviolet rays and other types of radiation

UV (ultraviolet) radiation, which is present in sunlight and tanning bed lamps, causes a lot of DNA damage in skin cells. Sun exposure, on the other hand, does not justify skin cancers that form on skin that is not normally exposed to sunlight. This suggests that other causes, such as being exposed to toxic substances or having a disease that weakens your immune system, may increase your risk of skin cancer.

Risk Factors

Skin cancer can be caused by a number of factors, including:

Fair skin
Skin cancer may affect everyone, regardless of skin color. Having less pigment (melanin) in your skin, on the other hand, gives less protection from harmful UV rays. You're considerably more likely to acquire skin cancer if you have blond or red hair, light-colored eyes, and you freckle or sunburn easily than someone with darker skin.

A history of sunburns
You're more likely to acquire skin cancer as an adult if you've had one or more blistering sunburns as a kid or adolescent. Adulthood sunburns are also a risk factor.

Excessive sun exposure
Anyone who spends a lot of time in the sun, especially if their skin isn't covered by sunscreen or clothes, is at risk of developing skin cancer. Tanning, which includes exposure to tanning lights and beds, is also dangerous. Your skin's damage response to too much UV light is a tan.

Sunny or high-altitude climates
People who live in sunny, warm areas get greater sun exposure than those who live in cooler climes. Higher heights, where the sun shines the brightest, expose you to greater radiation.

Skin cancer is more likely in those who have a lot of moles or atypical moles called dysplastic nevi. These aberrant moles, which are irregular in appearance and often bigger than normal moles, are more likely to develop malignant than others. Whether you have a history of atypical moles, keep an eye on them to see if they change.
A history of skin cancer in the family
You may have a higher risk of skin cancer if one of your parents or siblings has had the condition.

A weakened immune system
Skin cancer is more likely to occur in those who have compromised immune systems. This includes HIV/AIDS patients and those on immunosuppressive medicines following an organ transplant.

Prevention of Skin Cancer

Most skin cancers are preventable. To protect yourself, follow these skin cancer prevention tips:

  • In the middle of the day, stay out of the sun.

  • The sun's rays are greatest for many individuals in North America between 10 a.m. and 4 p.m. Even in the winter or when the sky is hazy, schedule outside activities for other times of the day. UV radiation is absorbed all year, and clouds provide little protection from harmful rays. Sunburns and suntans cause skin damage and increase your risk of getting skin cancer. Avoiding the sun at its strongest helps you prevent sunburns and suntans that cause skin damage and increase your risk of getting skin cancer. Skin cancer can also be caused by long-term exposure to the sun.

  • Wear sunblock all year - Even on overcast days, use a broad-spectrum sunscreen with an SPF of at least 30. Apply sunscreen liberally and reapply every two hours — or more frequently if you're swimming or sweating heavily. Apply sunscreen liberally to all exposed skin, including your lips, the tips of your ears, the backs of your hands, and the backs of your neck.

  • Be aware of sun-sensitizing medications - Inquire about the adverse effects of any drugs you're taking with your doctor or pharmacist. If they make you more sensitive to sunlight, take extra steps to protect your skin by staying out of the sun.  

  • Check your skin on a regular basis and notify your doctor if anything changes - Examine your skin for new skin growths or changes in existing moles, freckles, lumps, and birthmarks on a regular basis. With the help of mirrors, check your face, neck, ears and scalp. Examine your chest and trunk, and the tops and undersides of your arms and hands.

Checking for skin cancer symptoms

Regular skin examinations for new or odd growths, as well as changes in the size, shape, or color of an existing lesion, are critical for detecting and treating skin malignancies early. If you see anything odd, talk to your primary care physician or a dermatologist about it.

While many skin cancers develop in areas exposed to the sun, they may also develop in areas that are usually hidden from the sun. It is important to examine all of these areas.


What are the Symptoms and Signs of Skin Cancer? | CTCA (

Skin cancer - Symptoms and causes - Mayo Clinic

Early Detection - The Skin Cancer Foundation

Skin Cancer Early Signs & Symptoms (

Skin Cancer: Facts, Statistics, and You (

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