What are the stages of skin cancer?




Skin cancers comprising basal cell carcinoma, carcinoma, melanoma, and squamous cell generally starts as modifications to your skin. They can be precancerous lesions or new growths that are not cancer but there are chances that they would turn to cancer with time. Approximate 40 %- 50 % of fair-skinned people at the age of 65 will create at least one skin cancer. Learn to mark the prior warning signs. Skin cancer can be cured if it's found and treated untimely.


Skin cancer — the unusual growth of skin cells — generally develops on skin exposed to the sun. But this common form of cancer can also happen on areas of your skin not usually exposed to sunlight.

There are three major kinds of skin cancer — basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma and melanoma.




You should avoid or limit exposure to ultraviolet(UV) radiation and this would reduce the risk of skin cancer. You should check your skin for doubtful changes and this would help detect skin cancer in its early stages. By detecting skin cancer in its early stage will give you the huge chance for successful skin cancer treatment.


Skin cancers start basically on areas of sun-exposed skin comprising the face, neck, chest, lips, ears, arms and hands, and on the legs in women. It can also happen on areas that hardly ever see the light of day- your genital area, your palms, beneath your fingernails or toenails.

Skin cancer affects even with darker complexions. In short, it affects people of all skin tones.


When melanoma happens in people with dark skin tones, it's more probable to occur in areas not usually exposed to the sun, like the palms of the hands and soles of the feet.




Basal cell carcinoma signs and symptoms



Basal Cell Carcinoma


Basal cell carcinoma generally occurs in sun-exposed areas of your body like your neck or face.

· A waxy or pearly bump

· A smooth, flesh-coloured or brown scar-like scratch

· A bleeding or scabbing aching that cures and returns


Squamous cell carcinoma signs and symptoms


Most frequently, squamous cell carcinoma happens on sun-exposed areas of your body, like your face, ears and hands. People with darker skin are more probable to extend squamous cell carcinoma on areas that aren't often exposed to the sun.


Squamous cell carcinoma may show as:

· A rigid, red nodule

· A flat lesion with a scaly, covered exterior



Melanoma signs and symptoms



Melanoma - Symptoms and causes

Melanoma can widen anywhere on your body, in otherwise normal skin or in a present mole that becomes cancerous. Melanoma most frequently appears on the face or the chest of affected men. In women, this type of cancer most frequently develops on the lower legs. In both men and women, melanoma can happen on skin that hasn't been exposed to the sun.


Melanoma can influence people of any skin tone. In people with darker skin tones, melanoma tends to occur under the fingernails or toenails or on the palms or soles.

Melanoma signs comprise:

· A huge brownish spot with darker speckles

· A mole that transforms in colour, size or feel or that bleeds

· A small lesion with an uneven border and portions that look 

pink, white, blue, red or blue-black

· A sore lesion that itches or burns

· Dark lesions on your fingertips, toes, palms, soles or mucous membranes lining your mouth, nose, vagina or anus


Causes


Skin cancer occurs when mistakes (mutations) happen in the DNA of skin cells. The mutations cause the cells to raise out of control and develop a mass of cancer cells. Cells involved in skin cancer starts in your skin's top layer — the epidermis. The epidermis is a thin layer that gives a shielding cover of skin cells that your body repeatedly sheds. 

The epidermis contains three main kinds of cells:


·        Squamous cells lie just underneath the outer surface and work as the skin's inner lining.

·        Basal cells, which create new skin cells, sit beneath the squamous cells.

·        Melanocytes — which generate melanin, the pigment that gives skin its usual colour — are placed in the lower part of your epidermis. Melanocytes create more melanin when you're in the sun to help defend the deeper layers of your skin.

 

Ultraviolet light and other potential causes


Much of the harm to DNA in skin cells outcomes from ultraviolet (UV) radiation found in sunlight and the lights utilized in tanning beds. But sun exposure doesn't clarify skin cancers that develop on skin not normally exposed to sunlight. This shows that other factors may supply to your risk of skin cancer, such as being exposed to deadly substances or having a state that weakens your immune system.

Risk factors

Factors that may boost your risk of skin cancer comprise:

·        Fair skin. Anyone, despite skin colour, can get skin cancer. However, having less pigment (melanin) in your skin gives less protection from damaging UV radiation. If you have blond or red hair and light-coloured eyes, and you freckle or sunburn effortlessly, you're much more probable to increase skin cancer than is a person with darker skin.

·        Excessive sun exposure. Anyone who spends major time in the sun may increase skin cancer, particularly if the skin isn't protected by sunscreen or clothing. Tanning, counting exposure to tanning lamps and beds, also puts you in danger. A tan is your skin's injury comeback to extreme UV radiation.


·        Sunny or high-altitude climates. People who reside in sunny, warm climates are exposed to more sunlight than are people who reside in colder climates. Living at superior elevations, where the sunlight is strongest, also exposes you to more emission.


·        Moles. People who have many moles or irregular moles known as dysplastic nevi are at increased risk of skin cancer. These irregular moles — which look uneven and are generally larger than normal moles — are more probable than others to become cancerous. If you have a history of abnormal moles, observe them frequently for changes.


·        Precancerous skin lesions. These precancerous skin growths normally emerge as rough, scaly patches that vary in colour from brown to dark pink. 


Stages of skin cancer:


Skin Cancer Types, Stages & Different Levels


· After squamous cell cancer of the skin has been analyzed, tests are done to discover out if cancer cells have multiplied within the skin or to further parts of the body.

· There are three types that cancer spreads in the body.

· Cancer may multiply from where it began to other parts of the body.

· Staging for squamous cell carcinoma and basal cell carcinoma of the skin is based on where cancer developed.

· The subsequent stages are used for carcinoma squamous cell and carcinoma basal cell and of the skin that is on the head or neck but not on the eyelid:

o Stage 0 (Carcinoma in situ)

o Stage I

o Stage II

o Stage III

o Stage IV

· The following stages are utilized for carcinoma basal cell and carcinoma squamous cell for the skin on the eyelid:

o Stage 0 (Carcinoma in situ)

o Stage I

o Stage II

o Stage III

o Stage IV

· Treatment relies on the type of skin cancer or other skin condition diagnosed:

o Basal cell carcinoma

o Squamous cell carcinoma

o Actinic keratosis


References:


https://www.webmd.com/melanoma-skin-cancer/ss/skin-cancer-and-skin-lesions-overview

https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/skin-cancer/symptoms-causes/syc-20377605

https://www.cancer.gov/types/skin/patient/skin-treatment-pdq



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