What is Ovarian Cyst? How is Ovarian Cyst Surgery Done?

 All about Ovarian Cyst Surgery 

Ovarian Cyst are fluid filled sacs they are basically caused when fluid accumulates within a thin membrane inside the ovary, the size may however vary from as large as an orange to as small as a pea.

In a recent report from the doctors of Wardha- they removed an ovarian cyst over a size of a pumpkin weighing 18.5Kg. 

However these cysts are different from an abscess as they are not filled with pus. 

Medically it is stated that it mostly occurs during the reproductive years, but they can appear otherwise also.

ovarian cyst image_ichhori

It can cause bleeding but at the initial stages there are no signs or symptoms.

Ovarian cysts are the most common cause of pelvic masses in women, and in the majority of the cases, women are in their fertile age. Today, the surgical treatment has become more conservative and less invasive; hence, a laparoscopic approach in the presence of benign cysts has become a gold standard.Complications arise when this cyst becomes bigger, or may burst inside the ovary which can lead to hindrance of blood supply to the ovaries. The major causes of these are endometriosis, PCOS, etc

What causes these cysts into the ovaries?

Cysts develop anywhere but the main causes of ovarian cysts are as follows:

  • Functional Ovarian Cysts- which can be further classified into

    • Follicular Cyst 
    • Luteal Ovarian Cyst 
  • Pathological Cyst- which can again be classified into 

    • Dermoid Cyst
    • Cystadenomas 

There are a few complications as well that might appear: the rupture, hemorrhage and Torsion. 

One should therefore always consult a doctor in case of any slight pain or restlessness as if diagnosed at time may reduce the chances of complications. 

Types of Ovarian Cyst surgeries 

Two types of surgeries can be recommended by your doctor:

  1. A Laparoscopy 
  2. A Laparotomy 

Laparoscopy :

It is a key hole surgery where cuts are made in your stomach and gas is blown so that the surgeon can access your ovaries. It's basically a tube shaped structure with microscopic lights at the end of it. It is passed through your tummy so that it’s easy for the surgeon to detect and remove the cyst with the help of minor cuts. These cuts will be cured with stitches. Also it is preferred since it’s less painful and the recovery time is also quick and the patients are discharged on the same day. 

Laparotomy :  

If the cysts is serious, large or cancerous, Laparotomy is suggested. Unlike laparoscopy a large cut is made during laparotomy so that the doctor gets a larger and clear picture of the disease. The entire cyst including the ovaries can be sent for testing if it’s cancerous or not. The incision is covered with stitches. 

The patients however have to stay in the hospital till they recover. 

Diagnosis of Ovarian Cyst

An ovarian cyst can be diagnosed and detected by a doctor during pelvic examination, swelling in the ovaries can be determined with the help of ultrasound. Ultrasound test also called ultrasonography that uses an imaging test with high- frequency sound waves used to produce internal organ images. It will therefore help to determine the size, shape and location of the tool.

The tools used for imaging are:

  1. MRI: with the help of magnetic fields in depth organ images can be produced. 
  2. CT scan: it creates cross section images of organs. 
  3. Ultrasound: it will help visualize the ovary. 

Doctor’s don’t recommend a treatment immediately since a majority of cysts disappear after weeks or months. 

Also if you’ve recurrent cysts the doctor may prescribe oral contraceptive to stop ovulation and therefore prevent cyst formation. 

Complications with Ovarian Cyst

 The ovarian cyst may be acute and naturally disappear but there are cases in which the cyst may be serious or cancerous. 

Ovarian torsion is another type of serious ovarian cysts, it may move from its original position and sometimes the blood supply is cut off. 

Ruptured cysts are another type of complications of cysts that cause pain and internal bleeding. It may increase risk of infection.  

What is the solution to these problems of Ovarian Cyst?

The solution to the ovarian cysts is surgery which is only recommended if there are symptoms or the cyst appears to be growing or the cysts persist through two or three menstrual cycles. 

There are different types of surgeries for the same one is laparotomy and the other one is the key hole surgery. 

Like mentioned above sometimes detecting the cyst becomes difficult therefore they cannot be diagnosed, however these cysts can be cancerous and therefore it can be tested through biopsy. If the results show that it is cancer then more organs or tissues can be removed like the ovaries and the uterus. 

The diagnosis aims to assess the shape, size and composition of the cyst, whether it is filled with solid or liquid.

The diagnostic tests may include a blood test, an ultrasound, a pregnancy test and laparoscopy. 

In India the cost of the ovarian cyst removal surgery may cost approximately Rs. 1,72,000, but not to mention the price may vary from hospital to hospital and also according to the complications involved. 

Side Effects of Ovarian Cyst Surgery

According to a report most women complain about some or the other side effects, be mindful of those symptoms. The symptoms include:

  • Shoulder pain.
  • Vaginal bleeding up to 48 hours though it is minimal. 
  • Fatigue than usual days of work. 
  • You may also feel some pain in your abdomen after a few days of your operation. 

A retrospective study suggests that medical treatment is a risk factor for removal of normal ovarian tissue. 

Statistics however have shown that these surgeries have proven to be a success with just minor or temporary side effects which can be cured with medications. 

Post Surgery care for Ovarian Cyst

To have a fast recovery and to start working with normalancy, one should follow:

  • Fresh fruits, healthy meals that include high fibrous, nutrients such as vegetables, fruits. 
  • Keep the wound clean and keep changing the dressing periodically. 
  • Avoid drinking alcohol. 
  • Quit smoking 
  • Exercise regularly. You can start with minimal workouts and then increase it gradually. 
  • Follow a daily routine and stay clean and dressed daily.
  • Avoid long and tiring journeys as it may increase chances of blood clotting in legs. 
  • Also, follow all the instructions given by your doctor. 
  • Avoid pushing, pulling and lifting heavy weights and objects during initial days of your surgery. 
  • If you start going for work try reducing your working hours and prefer lighter work. 
  • If your work demands a lot of physical activity you may feel tired therefore avoid such work. 
  • Don’t stand or do heavy manual work longer than asked to do so it may increase pain and also worsen the wound. 
  • However if you feel well you may return to work within six to eight weeks of laparoscopic ovarian cyst removal. 
  • Seek permission from the surgeon before you try and get back to work and be in constant touch with your doctor as he/she will give you proper guidelines to be followed. 
  • However, if longer rest is required you can also obtain a medical prescription or certificate from the hospital. 
  • Lastly, stay positive and feed your mind with healthy thoughts.    



There is no way to prevent ovarian cyst growth. However, regular pelvic examinations will allow for early treatment if needed. This can often prevent complications.

Also the factors may vary according to age and pregnancy. 


https://www.nhs.uk › Health A to Z › Ovarian cyst

https://www.onhealth.com › content › ovarian_cysts

https://www.mayoclinic.org › drc-20353411


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