Is Ovarian Cyst dangerous? What are the common causes of ovarian cyst?

The female reproductive system is made up of internal organs and external structures. Its aim is to help the species reproduce. This mechanism goes through sexual maturation in order to fulfill its function in the pregnancy and birth process. 

The female reproductive system consists of a pair of ovaries in the pelvic area, as well as oviducts, vagina, cervix, uterus, and external genitalia.

Small cysts grow in the majority of women of reproductive age each month, and large cysts that cause problems occur in about 8% of women before menopause. After menopause, approximately 16% of women have ovarian cysts, which are more likely to be cancerous if present.

Benign ovarian cysts are normal in asymptomatic premenarchal girls, with 68 percent of ovaries in girls 2–12 years old and 84 percent of ovaries in girls 0–2 years old having benign ovarian cysts. The majority are smaller than 9 mm in diameter, with 10–20 percent being larger macrocysts. Although the smaller cysts usually go away within six months, the larger cysts tend to last longer.\

Now, first let’s understand what Ovarian cyst is?

The female reproductive system includes the ovaries. They're on both sides of the uterus in the lower abdomen. Women have two ovaries, which contain eggs, as well as estrogen and progesterone hormones.

On one of the ovaries, a cyst may form, which is a fluid-filled sac. Throughout their lives, many women will grow at least one cyst. Cysts are usually painless and harmless.

Types of Ovarian Cyst

Ovarian cysts come in a variety of shapes and sizes, including dermoid cysts and endometrioma cysts. Functional cysts, on the other hand, are the most common type. Follicle and corpus luteum cysts are the two forms of functional cysts.

1] Follicle cyst

An egg develops in a sac called a follicle during a woman's menstrual cycle. This sac can be found inside the ovaries. This follicle or sac usually breaks open and releases an egg. The fluid within the follicle will form a cyst on the ovary if the follicle does not break open.

2] Corpus luteum cysts

After being released from the follicle, an egg becomes the "corpus luteum." To produce progesterone, the follicle should shrink and seal itself. Fluid can build up within the luteum, forming a corpus luteum cyst. These cysts usually go away on their own after a few weeks, but they can grow to be several inches long, bleed, cause pain, and even twist the ovaries. This twisting is known as ovarian torsion.

3] Dermoid Cysts

This slow-growing cyst is most often present from birth in the female reproductive system, but it can also develop later. Dermoids, also known as "teratomas," are rarely cancerous or cause symptoms.

4] Endometriomas

Endometriosis, a disease in which the uterine lining develops outside the uterus, causes these cysts to develop. Endometrioma cysts are formed when tissue from the lining binds itself to an ovary in the majority of cases.

5] Cystadenomas

Cystadenomas are an exception to the rule of small ovarian cysts. These water-filled cysts develop on the surface of the ovary and can grow to be several inches long. Cystadenomas, however, are almost always benign.

Understanding the type of cyst you have will affect how you handle it, how long the symptoms last, and other factors. Working with your doctor will assist you in determining which form you have and what it means for your overall health and well-being.

The signs and symptoms of an ovarian cyst

Ovarian cysts sometimes do not cause any symptoms. However, as the cyst develops, signs will arise. Among the signs and symptoms are:

  • Bloating or swelling in the abdomen
  • Bowel gestures that hurt
  • Pelvic pain prior to or during menstruation
  • Pain in the lower back or thighs during the intercourse
  • Tenderness in the breasts
  • Vomiting and nausea

The following are severe ovarian cyst symptoms that need medical attention right away:

  • Fever
  • Faintness or dizziness 
  • Extreme or sharp pelvic pain

Causes of Ovarian Cysts

1] Endometriosis 

Endometrioma cysts sometimes occur in the presence of endometriosis. Tissue from the uterine lining binds to either or both ovaries, resulting in a painful growth — particularly during the menstrual cycle and sexual intercourse.

2] Pelvic Infections

Infections that spread to the ovaries or the uterine tubes are very likely to result in the formation of at least one cyst.

3] Hormonal Issues

Normal changes in hormones, especially cortisol, occur in some women, resulting in hormonal imbalances. This can be caused by a variety of factors, including stress, lack of sleep, and even a bad diet. Ovarian cysts can also be caused by fertility drugs. This is particularly true of ovulation-inducing medications.



4] Previous Ovarian Cyst

Women who have already had one ovarian cyst are far more likely to get another. It's important to remember, though, that having had cysts in the past does not mean you'll get ovarian cancer.

Since there's always a chance that ovarian cysts might become cancerous, it's important to monitor your health and have frequent pelvic exams. It's also worth noting that postmenopausal women with ovarian cysts are more likely to develop ovarian cancer. Call your doctor right away if you think you're forming a cyst, regardless of age.


5] Pregnancy 

It's not uncommon for a cyst to develop on an ovary during ovulation, so it's understandable if it persists during pregnancy. Although this type usually has no symptoms, if it grows in size, your doctor can recommend that it be removed because it could burst, cause pressure or discomfort, or even transfer an ovary out of place.

Ovarian cyst complications

The majority of ovarian cysts are benign and disappear on their own without treatment. There are few, if any, signs associated with these cysts. A cancerous cystic ovarian mass may be discovered during a routine examination in a small percentage of cases.

Ovarian torsion is another uncommon ovarian cyst complication. An ovary twists or moves from its original location as a result of a broad cyst. The ovary's blood flow is cut off, and if not treated, the ovarian tissue may be damaged or die. Ovarian torsion accounts for approximately 3% of emergency gynecologic surgeries, despite its rarity.

Ruptured cysts , which are also uncommon, can cause excruciating pain and internal bleeding. If left untreated, this complication raises the risk of infection and can be fatal.


1] Birth Control

Your doctor will prescribe oral contraceptives to avoid ovulation and prevent the formation of new cysts if you have recurrent ovarian cysts. Oral contraception will also lower the chances of developing ovarian cancer. Ovarian cancer is more common in postmenopausal women.

2] Laparoscopy

Doctor will perform a laparoscopy to surgically remove the cyst if it is tiny and findings from an imaging test to rule out cancer. Your doctor will make a small incision near your navel and then remove the cyst with a small tool inserted into your abdomen.

3] Laparotomy

If you have a large cyst, your doctor will surgically extract it from your abdomen through a large incision. They'll take a biopsy right away, and if the cyst turns out to be cancerous, they'll remove the ovaries and uterus with a hysterectomy.

Ovarian cyst prevention

Ovarian cysts are unavoidable. Ovarian cysts can be detected early with regular gynecologic exams. Ovarian cysts that are benign do not turn cancerous. Symptoms of ovarian cancer, on the other hand, may be mistaken for those of an ovarian cyst. As a result, it's important to see the doctor to get a proper diagnosis.

The vast majority would have no effect. Some people will need medical help. At the very least, check the reproductive organs once a year. It's the most effective way to keep your ovarian cysts visible to you and your doctor.

Some Natural Treatments for Ovarian Cysts

1] Heat Therapy

Cramping and pelvic discomfort caused by cysts may be relieved by applying a heating pad or a hot water bottle to the lower abdomen. Some doctors say it is just as safe as over-the-counter (OTC) drugs like acetaminophen or ibuprofen for menstrual health.

2] Salt Bath

A hot bath can relieve cramping, swelling, and discomfort caused by a cyst in the same way that a heating pad can. The relief is amplified by mixing epsom salts with magnesium sulfate.

3] Drink Herbal Tea

Anti-inflammatory and pain-relieving agents are found in many teas. Chamomile, for example, relieves cramping and anxiety while still helping you relax for a better night's sleep. Popular remedies for cramping and discomfort during menstruation include black cohosh and cramp bark.

4] Adjust Your Diet

A balanced diet, in addition to herbal teas, is one of the best all-natural ways to treat your menstrual health. Replace heavily processed junk foods with anti-inflammatory fresh fruits and vegetables, as well as protein and fiber-rich foods. Almonds, leafy greens, chicken, and berries are all good choices.

What are the long-term prospects?

Premenopausal women with ovarian cysts have a positive prognosis. The majority of cysts die after a few months. Recurrent ovarian cysts, on the other hand, may occur in premenopausal women and women who have hormone imbalances.

Some cysts can reduce fertility if left untreated. Endometriosis and polycystic ovary syndrome are also known to cause this. Your doctor will extract or shrink the cyst to increase your fertility. Fertility is unaffected by functional cysts, cystadenomas, and dermoid cysts.

Ovarian cysts, on the other hand, do not increase the risk of ovarian cancer. If a cyst is greater than 5 centimeters in diameter, some doctors will extract it.

Image Source: Google Photos
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