Contribution of female power in rolling back of agricultural laws in India

 Contribution of female power in rolling back of agricultural laws in India

Contribution of female power in rolling back of agricultural laws in



In the year 2020, the Indian Parliament approved three bills related to agriculture and farming, collectively known as the Farmers Bill. 


• The Farmers’ Produce Trade and Commerce (Promotion and Facilitation) Act, 2020


• The Farmers (Empowerment and Protection) Agreement of Price Assurance and Farm Services Act, 2020
• The Essential Commodities (Amendment) Act, 2020 


These are the three bills that have been introduced. These three farm bills have been introduced on September 27th, 2020, the President gave his consent to the bills and then laterthey were approved, and these bills then became the farm laws. These laws were then published in the official gazette.


Following the passage of the aforementioned laws, Indian politics took an unexpected turn, with all politicians suddenly focusing only on the welfare of farmers. The controversial laws sparked outrage among opposition party leaders and farmer groups. All of a sudden, it became all about the farmers, as the legislation began to get criticism and chaos ensued, and thousands of farmers around the country began to protest against the three farm laws enacted by Parliament.Despite the fierce resistance, some voices have come out in support of the laws, with some claiming that they will "unshackle" the agricultural workforce.


The primary objective of these laws was to implement required agricultural reforms for the benefit of farmers. It is undeniable that, after 75 years of independence, our country's agriculture sector has not progressed significantly. Agriculture accounts for almost 60% of the country's GDP, but it is the most disregarded sector, and farmers, while being the country's backbone, are the most unrecognized and ignored group of people. Their income is so low that they are unable to feed their families, which is why we see hundreds of our farmers commit suicide each year. The laws were passed with the objective of filling in this gap.


The aspect of women's participation in this movement or protest has drawn special attention nationally and globally,women taking part are involved in issues that are of concern to the entire society rather than to women specifically.


Women's active participation in these protests demonstrates that women's activism and protest has evolved into an empowering space in and of itself.


The protest has received widespread community support both in India and abroad. It has also been successful in involving and mobilizing women. In this way, the farmers' protests demonstrate how modern protest sites can be sites of resistance and power, as well as gender equity and empowerment.



List of the farmers bodies and the protesting farm unions: 

Farmer leaders such as Rakesh Singh TikaitBalbir Singh Rajewal, Jagmohan Singh Patiala,JoginderSingh UgrahanSatnam Singh PannuGurnam Singh Charuni and DrDarshanPal led the farmer’s protest. 

Contribution of female power in rolling back of agricultural laws in

(L-R) Farmer leaders Balbir Singh Rajewal, Jagmohan Singh Patiala, Joginder Singh Ugrahan, Satnam Singh Pannu and Darshan Pal 

farmer leaders who shaped protest against farm laws: 

1. Rakesh Singh Tikait:

• Rakesh Singh Tikait is the national spokesperson of Uttar Pradesh's Bharatiya Kisan Union (BKU).
• In November 2020, his organization BKU joined the 2020–2021 Indian farmers' protest, demanding that MSP be declared a legal right, farmers be excluded from the law to curb pollution and allow stubble burning (agreement reached during the sixth round of talks between the Centre and Farmer Union) and farm bills be repealed.


2. Balbir Singh Rajewal

Rajewal, who is 77 years old, is a well-known figure in Punjab. Since breaking away from the original BKU in the 1990s, he has led his faction. He is credited with writing the BKU's constitution.


3. Gurnam Singh Charuni

• Gurnam Singh Charuni is a farm leader in the Indian states of Haryana and Punjab.  

Contribution of female power in rolling back of agricultural laws in

• He is the Haryana chief of the Bharatiya Kisan Union (BKU) and the founder of the Sanyukt Sangharsh Party.


4. Joginder Singh Ugrahan

• Joginder Singh Ugrahan, an ex-armyman and farmer leader, was born in Sunam, Punjab
• He is the president of the farm union Bharatiya Kisan Union (Ekta Ugrahan) and one of the country's most popular farm leaders. 
• In 2002, he founded the Bharatiya Kisan Union (Ekta Ugrahan)


5. Jagmohan Singh Patiala

• Jagmohan Singh Patiala Patiala, 64, is a marginal farmer and trained acupuncturist who previously worked in the Punjab government's cooperative department. 
• He was a member of the Bharatiya Kisan Union Ekta before its dissolution 15 years ago, which resulted in the formation of the Bharti Kisan Union Ekta (Dakaunda), of which he now serves as general secretary.
• Jagmohan Singh Patiala Patiala and BKU (Dakaunda) president Buta Singh Burj Gill are known to work well together, and their organization has been a strong voice on issues such as farm loan waivers and compensation for farmer suicides.


6. Dr Darshan Pal

• The 70-year-old anesthesiologist is the coordinating and unifying force behind the current agitation. 
• He is the president of the Krantikari Kisan Union Punjab, an organization that has been advocating for farm loan forgiveness for several years. 
• His is one of the first organizations to begin protesting the central farm ordinances in June.
• Pal quit his job with the Punjab civil medical service in 2002 and began farming on his family's 15 acres of land. 
• He actively participated in BKU programmes before joining the Krantikari Kisan Union in 2016, where he is now the state president.


7. Satnam Singh Pannu

• Pannu, the president of the Punjab Kisan Mazdoor Sangharsh Committee, is a powerful voice for the cause of landless labourersPannu's organisation has expanded from Majha (border districts) to Doaba and Malwa regions since its inception in 2000.
• Pannu, along with general secretary Sarwan Singh Pandher, has aggressively compared the Kisan Mazdoor Sangharsh Committee to the BKU Ugrahan
• The committee established micro units at the village and block levels, and women and young people have been active participants in the organization's work.
• The Kisan Mazdoor Sangharsh Committee is not one of the 31 farmer organizations leading the agitation, but it does support them.


List of protesting farm unions

Under the coordination of bodies such as Samyukt Kisan Morcha and All India Kisan Sangharsh Coordination Committee, the protesting farm unions include:


• Bharatiya Kisan Union (UgrahanSidhupurRajewalChaduniDakaunda)
• Kisan Swaraj Sangathan in Indore
• Jai Kisan Andolan
• All India Kisan Sabha
• Karnataka Rajya Raitha Sangha
• National Alliance for People's Movements
• Lok Sangharsh Morcha
• All India Kisan Khet Majdoor Sangathan
• Kissan Mazdoor Sangharsh Committee
• Rashtriya Kisan Majdoor Sangathan
• All India Kisan Mazdoor Sabha
• Krantikari Kisan Union
• ASHA-Kisan Swaraj
• Lok Sangharsh Morcha
• All India Kisan Mahasabha
• Punjab Kisan Union
• Swabhimani Shetkari Sanghatana
• Sangtin Kisan Mazdoor Sanghatan
• Jamhoori Kisan Sabha
• Kisan Sangharsh Samiti
• Terai Kisan Sabha


Transport bodies such as the All-India Motor Transport Congress (AIMTC) have extended support


So, before going to understand what these three laws are and what exactly do these three laws do. Let us have a glimpse on some statistics on Indian farmers and agriculture.


Some statistics on Indian farmers and agriculture: 

The Agriculture Census in India, last held in 2014, identified that farmers in India have small land holdings which is one of the reasons they are unable to meet their needs. Two-thirds of the country's land holdings are less than one hectare. In our country, part-time farming is uncommon.  Farmer suicides, and the state of India's economy are two more linked topics. Between 1995 and 2015, India reported a total of 296,438 farmer suicides. In 2019, 10,281 persons working in agriculture committed suicide, or 28 people each day.


Punjab's economy, particularly its agricultural sector, is thought to have slowed, fueling the protest. This includes issues such as paddy-wheat monoculture and desertification warnings. Approximately 300,000 farmers from Haryana and Punjab have descended on Delhi, India's capital, to protest changes to the country's agricultural laws, particularly those relating to the loosening of controls governing government-controlled wholesale market prices. Farmers and police battled along the route, which was walked by many farmers from their different states. The groups were primarily halted by barricades near Delhi city limits, where they are now tented, according to The Guardian.


Our chart below about agriculture in India depicts some of the issues that the sector is dealing with. Despite employing 40% of Indians, agriculture accounts for only 16% of GDP, demonstrating the poor level of mechanization. The Indian government is attempting to modernize the sector to some extent with the new laws, but farmers are protesting. While the new laws merely add and promote new ways for farmers to directly enter open-market contracts with buyers without going through government-regulated middlemen, many fear that the government will eventually end its guarantees for the procurement and price of large portions of agricultural production. The government presently procures 40-50 percent of India's wheat and rice surplus, in addition to controlling substantial portions of wholesale. In the states of Haryana and Punjab, this figure is between 80 and 90 percent


Contribution of female power in rolling back of agricultural laws in

Image Source:


What are the three farm laws

So, here is a primer on the three farm laws and why were they controversial.


Also, here are a few key points from each law that explain the proposed revisions to the country's current agriculture legislation.


The Farmers' Produce Trade and Commerce (Promotion and Facilitation) Act, 2020:


The Farmers' Produce Trade and Commerce (Promotion and Facilitation) Act of 2020 is a federal law that promotes and facilitates the trade of agricultural products.




Citation: Act No. 21 of 2020


Territorial Extent: India 


Lok Sabha: The Bill was introduced in the Lok Sabha on September 14th, 2020, and it was passed in Lok Sabha on September 17th, 2020.


Rajya Sabha: It was passed in Rajya Sabha on September 20, 2020.


Presidential Assent: The Bill received Presidential Assent on 24 September 2020.


Introduced by: Narendra Singh TomarMinister of Agriculture and Farmers Welfare.


Background: On 5 June 2020, the Farmers' Produce Trade and Commerce (Promotion and Facilitation) Ordinance, 2020 was promulgated by the Union Cabinet.


This act allows farmers to engage in trade of their agricultural produce outside of the physical markets established or notifiedunder the regulations of various state Agricultural Produce Marketing Committees (APMC acts). This act aims to make remunerative prices more accessible through competitive alternative trading channels. It will overrule all state-level APMC acts and is also known as the 'APMC Bypass Bill.'


Key Highlights of The Farmers' Produce Trade and Commerce (Promotion and Facilitation) Act, 2020:


• Farmers could sell their produce to buyers from within or outside the state in areas outside the APMC mandis, according to provisions in sections 3 and 4 of the Act.


• In simple words, it allows farmers to trade anywhere outside of state notified APMC markets, including farm gates, warehouses, cold storages, and other locations. This will ensure that the farmers have more access and exposure to market.


• State governments and APMCs are prohibited from levying fees, cess, or any other charge on farm products.


• Proposes creation of electronic trading platform for direct and online produce trading. Partnership firms, companies, and societies are examples of entities that can create such platforms.


• Section 14 gave an overriding effect over the inconsistent provisions of the State APMC laws and section 17 empowered the Centre to frame rules for carrying out the provisions of the law.


Farmers opposition: 

Farmers objected to all three-farm legislation, but this Act, also known as the "APMC Bypass Bill," was the biggest issue. Cultivators were concerned that it would weaken the APMC mandis.


Farmers were concerned that the new laws would result in a lack of demand for their goods in local markets. They claimed that due to a lack of resources, moving the produce outside of the mandis would be impossible. Thereforethey sell their produce at local marketplaces at a lower price than MSP.


Farmers were particularly enraged by Section 8 of the law, which stated that a farmer and a trader might approach the Sub-Divisional Magistrate (SDM) for conciliation proceedings to reach an agreement. Farmers claim they lack the ability to enter SDM offices for conflict resolution, but others say this amount to usurpation of judicial authorities.


Farmers selling their goods outside of APMC-registered markets will cause states to lose money since they won't be able to collect ‘mandi fees.' Furthermore, if the entire farm commerce shifts out of mandis, commission agents will lose money.


The Farmers (Empowerment and Protection) Agreement of Price Assurance and Farm Services Act, 2020


Citation: Act No. 20 of 2020


Territorial extent: India


Lok Sabha: The Bill was introduced in Lok Sabha on September 14th, 2020, passed in Lok Sabha on September 17, 2020. 


Rajya Sabha: It was passed in Rajya Sabha on 20 September 2020. 


Presidential Assent: The Bill received Presidential Assent on 24 September 2020. 


Introduced by: Minister of Agriculture and Farmers Welfare, Narendra Singh Tomar



The act focuses on increasing the income of the farmers and it aims to offer a legal framework for farmers to engage in contract farming in its Section 3-12, in which producers enter into a direct agreement with a buyer (before to sowing season) to sell their produce to them at pre-determined” prices.However, the minimum support price (MSP) that buyers must offer to farmers is not mentioned in the law.


Farmers felt that the law would lead to corporatization of agriculture, even though the Centre said it was an attempt to liberate farmers by providing them the option of selling anyplace. Critics also said that the contract system would expose small and marginal farmers to exploitation by large corporations unless sale prices were regulated as they were before the new law took effect.


According to the Center, the goal is to shift the risk of market uncertainty from farmers to sponsors. It aims to increase farmer revenue by lowering the cost of marketing, in addition to providing them with modern technology and better inputs.


Farmers' Opposition: 

Farmer organizations claim that the law is framed to suit “large corporates seeking to dominate the Indian food and agriculture market" and that it will reduce farmers' bargaining strength.


The Essential Commodities (Amendment) Act, 2020:


Citation: Act No. 10 of 1995


Territorial extent: India


Status: Amended


Lok Sabha: The Bill was introduced in Lok Sabha on 14 September 2020, passed in Lok Sabha on 15 September 2020. 


Rajya Sabha: It was passed in Rajya Sabha on 22 September 2020.


Presidential Assent: The amendment received Presidential Assent on 26 September 2020.


This act, which amends the Essential Commodities Act of 1955, aims to limit the government's jurisdiction over the production, supply, and distribution of certain vital commodities.


• Cereals, pulses, oilseeds, edible oils, onion, and potatoes are no longer considered essential commodities under the legislation.


• Under the Essential Commodities Act of 1955, the government can only impose stock holding limits and regulate supply and pricing for the above commodities under “extraordinary circumstances as per Section 1 (A) of the new law. War, famine, astronomical price increases, and severe natural disasters are among them.


• As per this law, stock limits on farming produce to be based on price rise in the market. They can only be enforced if: (i)the retail price of horticulture product rises by 100%, and (ii) the retail price of non-perishable agricultural food goods rises by 50%.


• The act attempts to alleviate private investors' fears about regulatory interference in their corporate operations.
• Allows for the production, storage, movement, distribution, and delivery of goods, allowing for private sector/foreign direct investment in agricultural infrastructure.


• The Union government claims its goal is to promote price stability to the farm sector while also attracting private investment/FDI.



Farmers' Opposition:

Large corporations will be able to stock commodities without restriction, allowing them to impose terms to farmers.


Role of the 7 leading farmers in the protest: 
1. Rakesh Singh Tikait

• "Our main concern is that operations in the mandis and outside the mandis would be different. While mandis would levy taxes, there would be no taxation or market fee outside of the mandis. The government is not directly abolishing the Agricultural Produce Market Committees. However, the mandi system guarantees a minimum support price, which will gradually decline,” said Rakesh Tikait

Contribution of female power in rolling back of agricultural laws in

BKU leader Rakesh Tikait raises slogans during farmers' ongoing protest against Centre's new farm laws

• Rakesh Following the outbreak of violence in the National Capital on January 26 (Republic Day), Delhi Police filed a FIR against Rakesh Tikait and a few other farmer leaders for inciting violence on Republic Day and violating the NOC issued by Delhi Police.


2. Balbir Singh Rajewal

• His ability to articulate the farmers' point of view is seen as an asset during discussions with central ministers. 
• His seniority has also been put to use in unifying differing opinions that emerged during the 31 unions' meetings in planning and carrying out their protests. He has drafted the protest demand charter.
• Rajewal was once considered close to the Akalis, particularly former deputy chief minister Sukhbir Singh Badal, and assisted the Akalis in developing plans for agricultural development in the state.
• He has never accepted a political position from any party or run for office.


3. Gurnam Singh Charuni:

• He successfully led a campaign for a farm loan waiver in 2008. In 2019, he joined other farmers in a protest demanding that the government buy their sunflower crop.
• He participated as one of the leaders in the 2020–2021 Indian farmers' protest.


4. Joginder Singh Ugrahan

• Ugrahan was one of the leaders of the 2020–2021 Indian farmers' protest. 
• He is the leader of the Bharatiya Kisan Union's Ekta Ugrahan faction, which had the largest contingent of farmers protesting at Delhi's borders.
• He is regarded as the most uncompromising farm leader and defender of farmers, as well as the leader of one of the most powerful organisations in Punjab's Malwa region.



5. Jagmohan Singh Patiala

• Patiala is thought to have started the agitation against the three central farm laws as early as June, when the ordinances were still three months away from becoming Acts. 
• At the time, ten farmer organisations met jointly under the banner of the All India Kisan Sangharsh Coordination Committee (AIKSCC) and agreed that farmers would be made aware of the provisions of the laws.
• Patiala subsequently brought 31 farmer groups under the umbrella of the AIKSCC, which has been at the forefront of the protests since September. 
• The fact that so many groups in the factionalised world of farmer organisations have come together on one issue is seen as a testament to Patiala's organisational skills and reach among farmers.


6. Dr. Darshan Pal

• Dr. Darshan Pal is one of the farmer leaders who played a key role in bringing the 31 organizations together for the agitation, and he now serves as the group's coordinator.
• Pal, a member of the AIKSCC's working group, has played an important role in expanding the agitation beyond Punjab to farmers in Uttar Pradesh, Rajasthan, Karnataka, and Maharashtra.


7. Satnam Singh Pannu

• Even so, Pannu refused to end the Rail Roko protests, despite the fact that other farmers agreed to do so following talks with Punjab Chief Minister Amarinder Singh.
• Members of his organisation remained on the rail tracks in Jandiala after the Rail Roko protest was called off on November 23. 
• They have since left the site, however, to lead an individual protest to Delhi. Their leaders have refused to negotiate with the central government.



Fresh faces who led the protest:

• The farmer’s protest has also set the stage for the emergence of some young leaders, such as Bhupinder Singh Longowal, the 35-year-old state convener of the Kirti Kisan Union youth wing.
• Longowal and his team of young people are held solely responsible for enlisting rural youth in this agitation. Longowal holds a postgraduate degree in political science and was a member of the Punjab Students' Union and the Naujawan Bharat Sabha, a pre-independence Leftist organization, before joining the Kirti Kisan Union.


• Members of the Kisan Morcha, led by Ruldu Singh Mansa,and the BKU (Sidhupur) of Jagjit Singh Dallewal and the BKU (Kadian) of Harmeet Singh Kadian, have also emerged as active participants in this agitation.
• The young members of the latter two were the ones who broke through the barricades put up in Haryana on the way from Punjab to Delhi during their ‘Dilli Chalo Rally’


So, what was the issue of Agri laws? 

The issue is that no one knows how this will play out in reality. For one thing, several states already allow farmers to sell to private parties, but these laws provide a nationwide framework.


Farmers, on the other hand, are concerned that this may eventually lead to the abolition of wholesale markets and guaranteed prices, leaving them with no alternative. That is, they cannot return to the mandi or use it as a negotiating chip during talks if they are unhappy with the price offered by a private buyer.


Farmers will be drawn to these private players because they will provide a greater price for their produce. Meanwhile, the government mandis will close down, and these players will begin exploiting farmers after a few years. That's what we fear,” said Multan Singh Rana, a farmer in Punjab's northern province.


The government has stated that the mandi system will continue, and that the current Minimum Support Price (MSP) will not be removed. Farmers, on the other hand, are suspicious.


"For small and marginalized farmers, this is a death warrant. This is aimed at destroying them by giving big corporations control over agriculture and markets. They want to take our land from us. We will not, however, let them to do so”. A farmer, Sukhdev Singh Kokri, told BBC Punjabi last year.


The demonstrations have been most intense in Punjab and Haryana, where the mandi system is strong and productivity is high, allowing only the government to purchase that volume of produce at a fixed price.


"Giving the farmer the ability to sell outside the mandi system, to anybody," says economist Ajit Ranade, "is a positive step in freeing the farmer."


"The mandi system, however, must coexist with the private trade system. Perhaps the government should issue a written law stating that the MSP and mandi system will not be removed."


Other analysts argue that far more reforms are needed, such as in land use, to give private actors any meaningful power.


India continues to have strict restrictions governing the sale and use of agricultural land, as well as substantial subsidies that protect farmers from market pressure.

Women participation and how they supported/led the protests: 


“We have to look after our homes as well as the movement: Women at Farmer’s Protest

Contribution of female power in rolling back of agricultural laws in

On March 8, 2021, around 50,000 women workers and farmers joined their male counterparts on the outskirts of Delhi in Singhu and Tikri to commemorate their unique and long-standing participation in India's largest farmers' protest. 


On International Women's Day, thousands of female farmers stage sit-ins, and a hunger strike outside India's capital to protest new agricultural laws. 


The women wear yellow dupattas to honour the revolutionary Bhagat Singh, and their message to the Prime Minister is simple: "This is war."

According to a survey published by the international coalition of non-profits Oxfam International, women cultivators and agricultural laborerconduct 70% of all agricultural tasks. 


According to the report, their contribution is undervalued, and they are not recognized as farmers. Despite their lowly status in the agricultural industry, women have made an unprecedented contribution to the ongoing farmers' protests, and they are playing multiple roles and duties within the movement.


Women of different ages have participated in the protests. While some people want to speak onstage, others just want to be there. "I am an uneducated woman," says Gurmer Kaur, who is in her mid-70s and attended the protests with her companions Surjit Kaur and Jaswant Kaur. "I can't speak properly, but I can sit still and if these laws aren't repealed, I'll wait here until the next elections."

 The emergence of a new crop of women activists

Contribution of female power in rolling back of agricultural laws in

Activist Nodeep Kaur (L) and Disha Ravi (R)

• In this context, the contributions of two Indian women activists, Nodeep Kaur and Disha Ravi, are especially significant. 
• Nodeep Kaur has been organizing male and female industrial workers in order to demand better working conditions, and she has taken on a leadership role in this organization
• She demonstrated a high level of political consciousness by recognizing the similarities between farmers' and workers' struggles and leading a rally of thousands of industrial workers men and women, in support of the farmers' movement.
• Disha Ravi's case also demonstrates the emergence of a new generation of female activists who are aware of women's issues while also connecting them to larger societal issues.
• She is an environmental activist who was inspired by Greta Thunberg's activism.
• The global environmental movement has seen the participation of women of all ages at a level and scale never seen before in any other movement.



Some of the key women participants who supported, participated, or led the farmer’s protest:
Some of the Farmer’s Unions and organizations who have supported the farmer’s protest: 

One of the most defining aspects of this protest was the large presence of women. Two leaders in particular – HarinderBindu and Jasbir Kaur Natt were at the forefront, to make sure that women have their voices heard.

Contribution of female power in rolling back of agricultural laws in

Bindu: Farmer Leader Running Tikri Protest

Despite obstacles such as the lack of separate restrooms, women drove tractors, performed revolutionary songs, and made highways their new home. In an ordinarily patriarchal and male-dominated culture, many sociologists perceived a new gender awakening. 


Harinder Bindu, who is in-charge of BKU Ekta Ugrahan's women's cell, played a key role in mobilizing women from rural Punjab and motivating them to join the farm protest.


Jasbir Kaur Natt, one of Punjab's most prominent female farmers' leaders, was also a visible leader.  Natt is a member of the Punjab Kisan Morcha's state committee. Since her college days, she has been a Dalit rights activist, inspired by the condition of women in agricultural society.


Contribution of female power in rolling back of agricultural laws in

Jasbir Kaur Natt: the women farmer actvist at Delhi- Tikri border

If one went to the Tikri border stage of the Sanjha Morcha, a combined organization of 30 Punjabi farmers' unions, Jasbircould be seen controlling the stage, rousing the crowd, and looking after the women protesters. 


Her daughter, Navkiran Natt, one of the founding members of the Trolley Times, which became the publication of dissent during the demonstration, was also instrumental.


Neena Malhotra, Indian Ambassador to Italy:

In December, Indian Ambassador to Italy Neena Malhotra paid a visit to a gurudwara in Rome as part of the Indian government's outreach to Sikhs in the wake of the farm protests. Malhotra received backlash on social media when the Embassy claimed she had been well received during the visit. Members of the gurudwara management committee, on the other hand, heckled Malhotra as she spoke out in support of the new farm regulations.



Navsharan Kaur, a professor at Jawaharlal Nehru University in New Delhi: 

Women's contributions to the continuing farmers' protests deserve to be recognized. "The entire world is recognizing their contribution today, and the recent TIME magazine cover dedicated to women farmers is only one example," said Navsharan Kaur, a professor at Jawaharlal Nehru University in New Delhi.


Revolutionary slogans at the farmer’s protest:

"Several revolutionary slogans have also arisen from Punjab, expressing women's commitment to the ongoing movement. bacha bacha jhok denge zamin pe karza rok denge (We shall feed the fire of revolution with our offspring) is one of them. We will repay the land's debts)," Kaur stated.


Balwinder and Jasleen Kaur of Chandigarh:

Everyone knows and understands that what Modiji is doing would ruin not only us, but the entire country," said Balwinderand Jasleen Kaur of Chandigarh. They're both artists, but they've joined the protest to show their support for farmers. "After all, we're the daughters and grandchildren of farmers."


Kawalpreet and Jaspreet Kaur of Akhand KirtaniJatha College: 

At Singhu border too, all activities are voluntary and take various shapes – sewa (service) langar (communal, free kitchen), and kirtan (devotional singing). It's how AkhandKirtani Jatha college students Kawalpreet and Jaspreet Kaur demonstrate their support for the protest. "Farmers are the ones who feed us." They say, "We have to stand shoulder to shoulder with them." Kawalpreet is currently studying for her SSC examination. "Farz banta hai (It's our responsibility)," she simply responds when asked why she came despite her examinations. Women of all generations seem to believe that participating in this protest is part of their responsibilities.


Amandeep Kaur Deol of the Stree Jagriti Ekta Manch:

Amandeep Kaur Deol of the Stree Jagriti Ekta Manch echoes this sentiment, saying, "Women are already considered like second-class citizens." We are never given priority when it comes to who gets food or who gets an education. When farmers' incomes are impacted by these rules, things will only grow worse.


Jassi Sangha: 

Jassi Sangha, 33, is a self-proclaimed “proud daughter of farmers” and filmmaker who has been documenting the protests in Delhi.


Sonia Mann, Actress and Social Activist: 

Sonia Mann, an actress and social activist from Punjab, also came to protest alongside the farmers. “I’m a daughter of kissan [farmer],” she says. “My father was a union leader and he sacrificed his life for the sake of farmers, which is why I’m in this moment.”


Surinder Kaur, a member of the Kisan Sabha.

Ghar bhi sambhalna haiAndolan bhi sambhalna hai. (We have to look after our homes as well as the movement),” says 69-year-old Surinder Kaur, a member of the Kisan Sabha.

Women protestors from Punjab, Haryana, and Uttar Pradesh are well aware that the three laws will disproportionately harm them. "It's a really apparent thing." Low wages would have the first impact on women's kitchens, according to Ramandeep Kaur.


Some sayings by Surinder Kaur:

Surinder Kaur adds, “Thodi si zameen haivoh bhi Ambani-Adani ko bhent kar denge toh kahan se khayenge (We barely have any land, if that too is gifted to Ambani-Adani, then what will we eat)?”

"So many men are able to come here [to the protest] because of our sisters' silent efforts at home," Surinder says.

Amandeep Kaur, a community health worker, and farmer

"This law will kill us, ruin what little we have," says Amandeep Kaur, a farmer from Talwandi, Punjab, whose husband committed suicide five years ago after a disastrous crop left him with a $7,000 debt. Kaur supports her family by farming and working as a community health worker; she and her two kids only obtained rights to the land after her husband died. 

Jasbir Kaur, Farmer from Rampur: 

"When we heard the government urge the women to return home, something broke within  us," says Jasbir Kaur, a sprightly 74-year-old farmer from Rampur in western Uttar Pradesh. Kaur has been camping at the Ghazipur protest site for more than three months, returning home only once. Why should we go back? This is not just the men’s protest. We toil in the fields alongside the men. Who are we—if not farmers?


Sarjit Kaur and Dilbeer Kaur:

Sarjit Kaur ,and Dilbeer Kaur both of Rampur, Uttar Pradesh, have been attending the protests for the past two months. "We've come to show our support and unity," Dilbeer says. "Prime Minister Modi is forcing us to leave our farms and come here to fight for our rights," said one of the protesters. We've come to repeal these laws, and we'll stay here until we succeed. 

Sudesh Goyat, a Haryana-based gender rights activist

Sudesh Goyat, a Haryana-based gender rights activist, has been at the Tikri protest site since the beginning, helping to mobilise women and organise for Jan. 18 to be recognized as Women Farmers Day. "Women and men work in the fields in equal numbers. It’s only right they should be here to protest,” she says. “The awareness among women about their own power has never been higher than now”.

Bindu Ammini , Kerala-based Dalit and women's rights activist: 

Bindu Ammini is a well-known Kerala-based Dalit and women's rights activist. "I came here to show my support for the farmers," she explains. "However, I witnessed a radically different India, devoid of caste or gender discrimination." It's hoped that it will continue after the protest." TIME's Kanishka Sonthali.

Jasbir Kaur Nat, a member of Punjab Kisan Union

Women, who form the backbone of Indian agriculture, may be particularly vulnerable to corporate exploitation. According to Oxfam India, 85% of rural women labour in agriculture, yet just about 13% own land. Women are not seen as farmers. Their labour is immense but invisible” says Jasbir Kaur Nat, a member of the Punjab Kisan Union, who is mobilising farmers in Tikri, a protest location on the Haryana-Delhi border

Bhartiya Kisan Union (BKU)-Ekta Ugrahan: Farmer Leader- Harinder Kaur Bindu

Harinder Bindu, the 44-year-old general secretary and president of the women’s wing of the Bharatiya Kisan Union Ugrahan (BKU Ugrahan one of the few recognisable women leaders in the union has been immersed in activism since childhood.


Since their arrival on November 27, the largest group of women protestors – between 20,000-25,000 women – has remained at the Tikri border. They are led by Harinder Bindu and organised under the umbrella of Bhartiya Kisan Union (BKU)-Ekta Ugrahan.

Most of these women are from the Malwa region of Punjab, which includes Sangrur, Bhatinda, Mansa, Barnala, Ludhiana, and other cities. Farmers' organisations, state colleges, and government data have all agreed that the Malwa region accounts for 97 percent of farmer suicides in Punjab.


Most of these suicides are motivated by mounting debt. "Debts over wheat, rice, and potato yields are piling up. Harpreet Kaur of BKU-Ekta Ugrahan addresses the situation of farmer suicides by saying, "We already don't get the MSP rate." She claims that the problem is widespread in her hamlet of Jethuke in Bhatinda. “This is why women have a greater personal stake in these protests”. 


Speech explanation by Harinder Bindu at Framer’s Protest: 

"Those women have seen the nuks (flaws) in the farming system and have lost loved ones as a result, particularly male family members." They now bear the burden of the family's responsibilities. There is also resentment toward the government policies that resulted in the deaths of their kin. Ab yeh na ho ke yeh jo aulaad si pyaari zameen hai, yeh bhi khodein in kaale kanoonon ke karan. (It shouldn't happen that they lose this land, which is as valuable as their children)

"First, in the name of the Green Revolution, they wrecked mayhem. These three laws are now in effect. "All women may not be aware of the particular wording of the laws, but they are well aware that this will rob them of their food," explains Harinder Bindu.


Chairperson of the Punjab State Commission for Women: Paramjit Kaur Landran

Paramjit Kaur Landran, who was the chairperson of the Punjab State Commission for Women from 2013 to 2018,recounts a camp she organized in Mansa for widows of men who committed suicide. She claims that after listening to their complaints, she couldn't "sleep for two-three days." We didn't know how to even wipe these women's tears. As a result, it's no wonder that Malwa women are at the forefront of this protest."


Punjab Students' Union: 

"Women are saddled with responsibilities," adds Sukhpreet, a member of the Punjab Students' Union. It's not true that they have no knowledge." At the Tikri border, many female students from Punjab and Haryana are present. The farm laws, they believe, will 'take away their freedom.' "Prices will rise due to black-marketing with the third law — on critical commodities." Prices are already high, and wages are decreasing. 


Chatra Ekta Manch

We, the children of workers, will be forced to drop out of school and work. "Our independence will be taken away," Manisha, a student at the Chatra Ekta Manch in Rohtak, said.


Accredited Social Health Activist (ASHA)-Government Programme: 

All the way from Rout, Rajasthan, ASHA workers affiliated with the Centre of Indian Trade Unions (CITU) have shown their support. They've set up a tent and are giving out free medicines to the protestors. "Many women work in the fields," adds Poonam, the group's leader.


Kuljeet Kaur, Member of Samyukt Kisan Morcha:

These three laws threaten to completely wreck our lives, our homes, and our kitchens," said Kuljeet Kaur of SamyuktKisan Morcha. How will farmers send their daughters to school if they don't have any money? She stated, "It is an issue of our collective future." 


Demands by Women who supported, participated, or led the protest:

Several other issues concerning women's working conditions in the field were mentioned during the women's day celebration, despite the fact that the repeal of the three farm laws and the provision of minimum support prices remain the primary demands of women farmers.


Several women farmers are also demanding for the Swaminathan Commission report to be implemented, which proposed that farmers should have guaranteed access to and control over fundamental resources like land, water, credit, and insurance. 

Contribution of female power in rolling back of agricultural laws in

 Women farmers display pictures of family members who have died by suicide due their debt burdens.

On Women's Day, photos of women activists detained in Indian prisons, including Sudha Bhardwaj and Natasha Narwal, were displayed at Tikri's pandal. They demanded that all women political prisoners, including activists arrested in the Bhima Koregaon case, must be released immediately. 


They are actively supporting several other people-based movements that are fighting the Bhartiya Janata Party-led Union government's oppressive laws.


Changes felt by women protestors: 

Over the last three months, women farmers have expressed their deep concern about how the three controversial agricultural regulations will influence their lives. 


The change felt by women protestors are as follows: 

• Women are also speaking out at protests in India. Some women had never left their houses without a veil before, let alone spoken in front of tens of thousands of men.
• Many women came at the sites in tractors, which are a powerful and traditionally male symbol of Indian agriculture.
• "Women are changing women here," However, “they are claiming their identities as farmers.”
• The women of Tikri protested the government's strategy of supporting farming villages' market subjection and forced relocation to cities for work. "Where can we find work for ourselves and our daughters?" they asked


Contribution of female power in rolling back of agricultural laws in

Changes seen in women and men due to farmer’s protest: 

• All of this is taking place in Uttar Pradesh, Punjab, and Haryana, India's deeply patriarchal heartlands. Activists have struggled to change attitudes in states where femicide, sexual violence, and gender discrimination are common. 
• "We've been striving to bring gender equality to these sections for a long time—but the process has been slow," says Sudesh Goyat, a women's rights activist. She claims she was the sole woman from Haryana present during the first few days of the protests in Tikri
• However, after the judge advised women to leave, they "began to stream in." They brought their families with them. They were accompanied by additional women. They came by themselves. "It's nothing short of a miracle," she says.
• In solidarity with the farmers, activists imprisoned in Maharashtra’s Taloja jail staged a day-long hunger strike in December.


Contribution of female power in rolling back of agricultural laws in

 Photo of Women Members of various farmer organisations block railway tracks during a protest against the central government over the farm reform laws

Changes seen at various protest sites: 

• Activists take use of this once-in-a-lifetime opportunity to host frequent talks about women's labor and contributions to the rural economy. Throughout the day, announcements from the podium about treating women equally reverberate around the protest sites.
• Harsharan Kaur, a young IT engineer who quit a job in Dubai to volunteer at the protest site, adds, "I like this, India."
• "Whenever we talk about Women's Day, we can't overlook the reality that agriculture employs the greatest number of women. "This is a day that will be managed and controlled by women; the speakers will be women; there will be a lot of feminist ideas brought in; and there will be talks on what these laws imply for women farmers, "Women farmers in Singhu and Tikri are actively discussing about sexual harassment, Dalit landless women's difficulties, and women's access to education and health-related amenities," ASHA Kisan Swaraj's Kavita Kuruganti stated. 
• Ravneet Kaur, a 29-year-old law student from Bangalore, has effectively normalized conversations around a taboo issue in India: menstruation, at the Ghazipur site. With the support of the women activists, she built up a women's store at the site, where they openly displayed sanitary napkins. "It didn't take long for the men to get used to it," she says. "These kinds of discussions are already normal around here." Men no longer shudder when they hear the word sanitary napkins."
• Women leaders and activists spoke on stage at Tikri on the remarkable role of women in previous and present farm battles. They discussed the underappreciated role of women in 1950s and 1960s movements such as Tebhaga, Telangana, and the Anti-Betterment Levy struggles.


Contribution of female power in rolling back of agricultural laws in

Pressure felt by the women protestors: 

• Back in Punjab, women are equally preoccupied with taking part in small-scale protests in front of toll plazas and Reliance malls. They believe that the momentum must not be slowed. 


• They're also balancing other responsibilities. Some people have returned home to care for their ageing parents. Others have small children. Others, their livestock. "We left Punjab early in the morning and would return late at night." Gurleen Kaur, who has been making this long journey every day for the past seven days, adds, "There is no one to feed our cattle, so we have to return."


• A specific 'rotation system' has been designed to manage things efficiently both at home and at the protests. Some people return after five to ten days, and others take their place. "We've implemented this system because we've left families at home." There is also the matter of housework to consider. "However, I can tell you that the ten who go bring 200 with them," Ramandeep Kaur says.


• Protesting women said they work "shoulder to shoulder with our brothers" in the fields, collecting crops, and selling them at mandis. Many women have been unable to participate in the protest because of pending farm chores at home. It's time to tend to the wheat and fodder crops that have been planted. This work is carried out by men every year. However, because many people are at the protests at this moment, women have taken on this task on their own.


• When Disha Ravi and Nikita Jacob joined an international solidarity campaign in favor of farmers, the government charged them with sedition for discussing internal problems with the outside world.


Government’s plan to double the income of farmers by 2022:

In April 2016, the government established an Inter-ministerial Committee to investigate and recommend measures for "Doubling of Farmers Income" (DFI). In September 2018, the Committee presented the Government with its report, which included a strategy for doubling farmers' income by 2022. The Committee recommends that the DFI strategy include seven sources of income growth: (i) increased crop productivity; (ii) increased livestock productivity; (iii) increased resource use efficiency or cost savings; (iv) increased cropping intensity; (v) diversification toward high value crops; (vi) improved real prices received by farmers; and (vii) shift from farm to non-farm occupations.


Contribution of female power in rolling back of agricultural laws in

The government has established an 'Empowered Body' to assess and monitor progress after accepting the DFI Committee's recommendations. Shri Narendra Singh Tomar, Union Minister of Agriculture and Farmers Welfare provided this information in a written reply to the Rajya Sabha. 


According to data submitted to the Rajya Sabha by the Ministry of Agriculture and Farmers Welfare in March of this year, the government is counting on yearly Budget allocation, food grain production, MSP, and procurement to increase farmers' income.


Furthermore, the government has implemented several developmental programs, initiatives, reforms, and laws that are aimeat increasing farmer incomes. All these policies and programs are backed up by increased budgetary allocations, non-budgetary financial resources in the form of Corpus Funds, and supplementary income transfers through PM-KISAN.


Related steps taken by the government for doubling farmer’s income by 2022:


• The 'Atma Nirbhar Bharat: Agriculture' plan, which includes broad market reforms, the creation of an 'Agricultural Infrastructure Fund (AIF)' worth Rs. 1 lakh crore, and a Rs 500 crore allocation for the Bee Keeping effort, is perhaps the most recent major intervention.


• The budget allocation for the Department of Agriculture has been increased by more than 5.5 times to 1,23,017.57 crore in 2021-22, compared to a budget allocation of 21,933.50 crore in 2013-14. Increased food grain production, according to the government, is helping farmers earn more money.


• From 2018-19, the government has increased the MSP for all mandatory kharif, rabi, and other commercial crops with an overall India weighted average cost of production return of at least 50%.



• MSP payments to farmers for pulses have increased by 95.93 times in the last five years (2016-17 to 2020-21) compared to the period from 2009-10 to 2013-14, while MSP payments to farmers for oilseeds and copra have increased by 10.80 times (2016-17 to 2020-21).


• Farmers, on the other hand, question the cost calculation formula, claiming that the actual production cost is substantially higher than that factored into the model.


• The government provides 6,000 each year in three equal instalments under the PM-KISAN scheme, and a total of 1,15,276.77 crore has been distributed to 10.74 crore farmer families so far.


• The Pradhan Mantri Fasal Bima Yojana (PMFBY) has registered around 23 crore farmers, and over 7.6 crore farmer applicants have received claims totaling over Rs 90,927 crore.


• Farmers paid almost 17,510 crores as their share of premium during this time, against which they received nearly 90,000 crores in claims. According to the government, for every 100 rupees of premium paid by farmers, they have collected 520 rupees in claims. However, farmers in several states complain that their compensation requests are ignored, and they continue to lose money.


• The agricultural sector's institutional credit has increased from 7.3 lakh crore in 2013-14 to 16.5 lakh crore in 2021-22. The Agriculture Infrastructure Fund (AIF) has been established to provide medium to long-term debt financing for viable projects in post-harvest infrastructure and community farming assets.


• The government is promoting Farmer Producer Companies, organic farming, and start-ups by giving soil cards.


• Under Nabard, a 5,000 crore Micro Irrigation Fund has been established. Micro-irrigation, agricultural mechanization, and E-NAM are among the government's other initiatives.


According to the 2017 Committee on Doubling Farmers' Income report, 22.5 percent of farmers in India live below the official poverty line. Average farmer income in 2013 was Rs 6,426 (equivalent to Rs 9,300 or US$120 in 2020), while average monthly consumption expenditure was Rs 6,223(equivalent to Rs 9,000 or US$120 in 2020).


The official data on Gross Value Addition (GVA) in agriculture and associated sectors is the best proxy for trends in farmers' income throughout this time. According to the most recent official data from the Economic Survey of 2021, the average annual growth rate of Agri GVA during the seven years of the Modi government was 3.3 percent, compared to 4.6 percent under the UPA-I and UPA-II. The agricultural GVA has increased by 24.5 percent in the last five years. According to Ramesh Chand, the economy will increase at a rate of 3.5 percent this year.


As a result, the six-year grand national objective to increase farmers' real income by 100% is likely to end with an actual rise of fewer than 30%. In comparison to the aim of 10.4%, this equates to about 4% every year. This is similar to the growth in actual agricultural revenue between 2002 and 2012.


Ground Reality of Doubling Farmers Income by 2022: 

For 2020-21, the ministry presented a long list of initiatives with a total budget allocation of Rs 17,540 crore. A closer examination reveals that only Rs 5,787 was spent. This is only 33% of the overall budget. In three of the schemes, not a single penny had been spent. According to the ministry's responses to parliamentary questioning, their programmes reach just approximately 10% of the total farmer population.


According to the most recent government estimate from 2013, India had 90.2 crore agricultural households. The Modi government's well publicized PM Kisan plan, which provides farmer households with an annual income assistance of Rs 6,000 in three equal instalments, has so far benefited 10.74 crore, or 10%, of the country's farmer households.

Only 23 crore farmer households are covered by the Pradhan Mantri Fasal Bima Yojana, the national government's major crop insurance scheme, which was started in 2016. The soil health card scheme, which was launched in 2014-15 to test individual farmers' soil samples and inform them about nutrient deficiencies, has only reached 11 crore farmers so far. Other central schemes' coverage is considerably more limited.


Given these figures, the government should be realistic about the programmes' potential and, if necessary, reverse course. While these programs can provide some development and relief to farmers who want to participate if all farmers will participate blinds the Modi government.


Not surprisingly, since 2016, actual income growth has been restricted. In the lack of updated farm income figures, one may look at the per capita value of crop yield to determine whether farmer incomes have increased. When calculated in this way, it's easy to see that a farmer's annual revenue from farming increased by barely Rs 10,000 between 2016-17 and 2019-20.

In other words, a farmer today makes Rs 860 more per month than he or she did in 2016-17.


In such circumstances, how can farmers’ income be doubled?
What farmers want and why they are protesting?
Points that led farmers to protest these three farm laws.

• Farmer unions in Punjab and Haryana said the recent laws enacted at the Centre will dismantle the minimum support price (MSP) system.


• Farmers fear that, with the mandi system effectively defunct, they will be unable to secure a guaranteed price for their products



• Also, farmers believe that the laws will put an end to their current relationship with agricultural small-scale entrepreneurs (commission agents who act as middlemen by providing financial loans, ensuring timely procurement, and promising adequate prices for their crop.


• Also, the "arthiyas" – commission agents who also provide loans to farmers will go out of business.


• The farmer unions believe that the laws will open the sale and marketing of agricultural products outside the notified Agricultural Produce Market Committee (APMC) mandis for farmers. 



• Furthermore, the laws will permit interstate trade and stimulate increased agricultural electronic trading. The new regulations make it illegal for state governments to charge a market fee, cess, or levy for trade outside of the APMC markets, leading farmers to fear that the laws will "gradually deteriorate and eventually eliminate the mandi system," putting farmers "at the mercy of corporates." 



Farmers Union’s Demand: 
Immediate Demand: 

• Repeal the farm laws 


• The most important demand is that the three laws that deregulated the sale of their crops be repealed. Farmers' unions might alternatively settle for a legal guarantee that the MSP system will remain, ideally through law.


• They also demanded that the government drop the proposed Electricity (Amendment) Bill 2020, which they worry will result in the end of government-subsidized electricity. Farmers argue that rules prohibiting stubble burning should not apply to them as well.



Later Demands: 

Furthermore, protesting farmers feel that dissolving the APMC mandis will favor the elimination of the Minimum Support Price for their crops (MSP). As a result, they are demanding that the government guarantee the minimum support prices for their crops in writing. Other demands that have been added throughout time include:


• Call a special session of Parliament to repeal the farm laws
• Make the MSP and state crop procurement a legal right
• Assurances that the conventional procurement system would continue to exist
• Implement the Swaminathan Panel Report, which recommends setting MSP at least 50% higher than the weighted average cost of production
• Cut diesel prices for agricultural use by 50%
• Repeal of the Commission on Air Quality Management in the National Capital Region and the accompanying Ordinance2020, as well as the removal of the punishment and fine for stubble burning. 
• Release of farmers arrested for burning paddy stubble in Punjab
• Abolishing the Electricity Ordinance 2020
• Centre should not interfere in state subjects, decentralization in practice
• Withdrawal of all cases against and release of farmer leader


Details about the protest: 
2020-2021: Indian farmer’s protest

Contribution of female power in rolling back of agricultural laws in

Photo Of  Farmers raise slogans as they burn effigies of Congress, BJP, and SAD party leader during a demonstration against newly passed agriculture bills, on the outskirts of Amritsar

The Indian farmers' protest of 2020–2021 was in response to three agriculture bills passed by India's Parliament in September 2020. Many farmer unions and politicians from the opposition have criticized the acts, referring to them as "anti-farmer laws" that would leave farmers at the mercy of corporations.


When the Farm Bills were made public in August 2020, small-scale protests began in Punjab. More farmers and farm unions across India joined the rallies against the reforms only after the acts were passed. To protest these farm rules, farm unions across India called for a Bharat Bandh (nation-wide shutdown) on September 25, 2020.  Protests were particularly common in Punjab, Haryana, and Western Uttar Pradesh. However, protests were also recorded in Uttar Pradesh, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Odisha, Kerala, and other statesFarmers from other states then marched to Delhi to protest against the laws


Farmers' unions in Haryana seized over highway toll plazas on December 12 and enabled free circulation of vehicles. In several parts of India, marginal farmers have organized bullock-cart rallies in support of farmer protests. Transport organizations such as the All-India Motor Transport Congress (AIMTC), which represents over 9.5 million truckers and 5 million bus and taxi drivers, have threatened to cease supply transportation in the northern states if the government does not address the farmers' concerns.


Rail Roko and Dili Chalo:

Farmers began a "Rail Roko" (transl. "stop the trains") campaign on September 24, 2020, causing railway services to and from Punjab to be disrupted. The campaign was extended into October by the farmers. Some farmer groups opted to call off the campaign on October 23rd, since supplies of fertilizer and other items in the state were running low. 

Contribution of female power in rolling back of agricultural laws in

Photo Of  Farmers raise slogans as they block train tracks with tractors on the twentieth day of their ongoing 'Rail Roko' protest over recent farm reform laws

After failing to gain backing from their state administrations, the farmers resolved to march to Delhi to exert pressure on the federal government.


After two months of protests, farmer unions, mostly from Punjab and Haryana, launched the Dili Chalo (translation: Let's Go to Delhi) movement, in which ten thousands of farmers marched to the nation's capital. Protesters from the Dili Chalo campaign were confronted by police at the city's gates on November 25, 2020. To disperse the protests, police used tear gas and water cannons, dug up roads, and erected layers of barricades and sand barriers, resulting in at least three farmer deaths.


Contribution of female power in rolling back of agricultural laws in

Photo Of  Farmer raise slogans during the ongoing 'Rail Roko' protest over the farm reform laws. 

On November 26 ,2020, the march on Delhi was accompanied by a 24-hour strike by millions of people across India in protest of both the farm law reform and the labor law amendments. Between November 28 and December 3, a total of 150 to 300 thousand farmers were expected to be blocking Delhi's border roadways.


11 rounds of talks but no result: 

Between 14 October 2020 and 22 January 2021, the central government and farmers represented by agricultural unions had eleven rounds of discussions. Farmer leaders, on the other hand, said they would settle for nothing less than a complete repeal of the laws enacted in September last year, which they believe are pro-corporate, as well as a legal guarantee for the procurement of crops at government fixed MSPs.


Blocking of borders and roads:

During the protests, demonstrators blocked several borders, including the Kundli border, Dhansa border, Jharoda Kalan border, Tikri border, Singhu border, Kalindi Kunj border, Chilla border, Bahadurgarh border, and Faridabad border.

Contribution of female power in rolling back of agricultural laws in

 Photo Of  Members of various farmers organisations block a national highway during a protest against Central Government over farm reform bills

The protesters announced on November 29 that they will block five more entry points into Delhi: Ghaziabad-Hapur, Rohtak, Sonipat, Jaipur, and Mathura. This culminated in brief skirmishes with the police, which included stone pelting and lathi charges. To prevent automobiles from entering Delhi, metal barriers, cement walls, and iron nails were erected on the highways leading to the three main borders (TikriSinghu, and Ghazipur) in early February 2021Numberof Delhi's borders remained closed as of March 22, 2021Around 40,000 protestors have gathered in Singhu and Tikri




The Shetkari Sanghatana, a Maharashtra farmers' union, supports the proposals and believes that agricultural commodity prices should be determined by the market. It claims that minimum support prices have weakened farmers instead of empowering them. The Sanghatana urges that the government ceases to intervene in the agricultural commodity market so that farmers are no longer reliant on minimum support prices. 


On the 24th of December, 20,000 members of the Kisan Senamarched to Delhi in support of farm laws. Five of the groups supporting the laws, on the other hand, are directly affiliated to the ruling party, and several have no ties to agriculture or farmers. 


On 28 January 2021, the residents of the border villages which the farmers occupied, staged protests to make farmers vacate the sites as it affected their commute. They also accused the farmers for disrespecting the Indian flag at Red Fort. 


Republic Day Kisan Parade or Lal Kila episode: 

Contribution of female power in rolling back of agricultural laws in

Farmers remove police barricades set up near the Red Fort during the 'Kisan Gantantra Parade' amid the 72nd Republic Day celebrations, in New Delhi. 

The Indian farmers' Republic Day violence of 2021 was a protest held in Delhi, India on January 26, 2021. It became violent when a group of protestors deviated from the march to storm the Red Fort in 2020–2021, as part of the Indian farmers' agitation. The protest was held on the 72nd Republic Day to protest Narendra Modi's National Democratic Alliance's (NDA) plan to enforce three farm acts.


On the 26th of January, tens of thousands of farmers opposing agricultural reforms marched into Delhi in a massive convoy of tractors. The march began at Singhu Border, Tikri Border, and Ghazipur in Delhi, following the police-approved routes. Farmers were denied access to the city's central district, where the official Republic Day procession was taking place.According to police estimations, roughly 7000 tractors had assembled at the Singhu Border starting site. According to Reuters, close to 200,000 tractors took part, citing farmers' unions.


However, as protesting farmers battled with police, a segment of the tractor demonstration turned violent. Some demonstrators diverted from their pre-approved paths and broke through the barricades, according to Delhi Police. When some protesters entered central Delhi, they resorted to vandalism and property damage. Other demonstrators arrived at the Red Fort and raised the Nishan Sahib (a Sikh holy flag) and farmer union flags on the rampart's mast.


Contribution of female power in rolling back of agricultural laws in

The fort's amenities were also damaged as a result of the fight between police and farmers. In numerous sections of Delhi and the NCR region, 394 police officers and thousands of farmers were reported hurt, 30 police cars were damage and internet connections were stopped for hours.


The Delhi Police claimed on January 28 that it had filed multiple criminal cases and arrested several people in connection with the episodes of violence. More than 300 police officers were hurt as a result of the demonstrators' use of batons and sharp objects. The Bharatiya Kisan Union (Bhanu) and the Rashtriya Kisan Mazdoor Sangathan withdrew from the farmers' protest after violence and the flying of a religious flag on the Red Fort's ramparts.


Following protest: 

On the 3rd of February, farmer leaders warned that if the farm laws were not repealed, the protests would escalate to the point of overthrowing the government.


According to Haryana Police, there are over 40,000 devoted protestors sitting at Singhu and Tikri near the Delhi border as of March21, 2021.


Starting on July 22,2021, the SKM has planned for 200 farmers to protest outside the Parliament every day throughout the monsoon session.


On September5, around 500,000 farmers gathered in Muzaffarnagar, Uttar Pradesh, for a demonstration rally.


Farmers' unions called a Bharat Bandh on September 27.The bandh had limited nation-wide impact. Major political parties came out in support of the bandh. 

End of the protests: 


The Modi administration finally repealed all three farm laws in late November 2021. Protests, on the other hand, would last until December 11, 2021. Hundreds of farmers celebrated their win by dancing and dismantling thousands of tent dwellings along key highways. The farmers began returning to their houses when the protests were deemed over.


International support from other countries: 

Let’s have a look of which countries and their leaders came out in support of the farmer’s protest: 



Rob Mitchell, a member of the Victorian parliament, and Russell Wortley, a member of the Victorian Labour Party, were among the Labour leaders who spoke out in support of the farmers' protests, with Mitchell addressing the Victorian parliament on the subject after several citizen protests in Australia.



• Justin Trudeau, Prime Minister of Canada expressed concerns about the handling of protests by the Indian government.
• He was the very first politician on international grounds to speak for the farmers. Canada will always be there to defend the right of peaceful protestors," Trudeau stated, adding that he supports "the process of dialogue." 
• The Indian Ministry of External Affairs summoned Canada's High Commissioner to India, Nadir Patel, and issued a démarche, calling Trudeau's remarks " an unacceptable interference in our internal affairsTrudeau reiterated his statement despite the Indian Government's warning that his comments threatened diplomatic relations between the two countries.


New Zealand: 

In early December 2020, 1,500 Indian New Zealanders protested the new agricultural laws in Auckland's Aotea Square.



Punjabi Federal Minister Fawad Chaudhry slammed the Indian government's treatment of Punjabi farmers, calling it "shameful." He further stated that Modi's policies were "threats for regional peace".


United States:

• Several Indian American protests were place in support of the farmers in San Francisco, Chicago, Indianapolis, New York City, Houston, Michigan, Atlanta, and Washington, D.C. 
• A rally of nearly a thousand Indian Americans was also staged in Detroit, as well as a car parade in Fort Wayne. Several Republican and Democratic members of Congress, including Josh Harder, TJ Cox, Doug LaMalfa, and Andy Levin, have expressed support for the protests. Seven members of Congress wrote to the Secretary of State in December 2020, requesting that he address the matter of the farmers' protests with India. 
• On March 1, the Congressional Research Service released a report on the farmer protests. 
• In response to the protests, Bob Menendez and Chuck Schumer addressed a letter to the Biden administration, requesting it to raise the farmer issue with the Indian government.
• Sikh farmers in California's Central Valley funded a 30-second ad that aired during Super Bowl LV on February 7 in support of Indian protesters. 
• Trevor Noah aired an eight-minute segment about farm protests in February 2021.

United Kingdom: 

• Tanmanjeet Singh Dhesi, Preet Kaur Gill, Claudia Webbe, and John McDonnell, all Labour MPs in the United Kingdom, expressed support for the protests while also raising concerns about the government's response to protestors.
• A number of British MPs, as well as cricketer Monty Panesar, tweeted their support for farmers. A group of 36 British MPs from the Labour Party, Conservative Party, Liberal Democrats, and Scottish National Party asked Dominic Raab, the British Foreign Secretary, to discuss their concerns with the Indian government in December 2020.
• After being confronted with the issue, British Prime Minister Boris Johnson conflated it with the India–Pakistan conflict, drawing domestic and international condemnation.
• A British politician, Nadia Whittome, issued a statement in support of the farmers. 



Social media: Tweets by celebrities in support of farmer’s protest: 

The visible participation of women in this movement has piqued the interest of leading female activists around the world, including:

• Singer Rihanna
• Environmental activist Greta Thunberg
• Legal activist Meena Harris (the niece of US Vice President Kamala Harris)
• Hollywood film actress Susan Sarandon
• UN human rights chief Michelle Bachelet
• United Kingdom Green Party member Caroline Lucas

They have all expressed solidarity with farmers protesting the three farming laws enacted by the BJP government.


In early February a "social media war" erupted after a tweet by Rihanna saying, "why aren't we talking about this?!" with the hashtag #FarmersProtest. 


Numerous celebrities and international figures came out in support such as:

• Greta Thunberg is a Swedish environmental activist  who is known for challenging world leaders to take immediate action for climate change mitigation
• Lilly Singh is a Canadian comedian, former talk show host, and YouTuber.
• Jamie Margolin is an American climate justice activist and served as the co-executive director of Zero Hour.
• Elizabeth Wathuti is a Kenyan environment and climate activist and founder of the Green Generation Initiative
• Claudia Webbe is a British politician who has served as Member of Parliament for East since 2019.
• Mia Khalifa and US vice-president Kamala Harris's niece lawyer Meena Harris were among international celebrities who tweeted in support of the ongoing protest by Indian farmers against the Centre's Farm Laws.


Following this, Indian Celebrities such as Akshay Kumar, Ajay DevgnSuniel Shetty, Karan Johar, Ekta Kapoor, Lata Mangeshkar, Kailash Kher, Ravi Shastri, Anil KumbleSachin Tendulkar, Virat Kohli, Rohit Sharma, Shikhar Dhawan, Ajinkya Rahane, Gautam Gambhir, Suresh Raina, P. T. Usha , P. T. Usha, Manika Batra, Saina Nehwal, Geeta Phogat also posted tweets with the hashtags #IndiaTogetherand #IndiaAgainstPropaganda


Protest Toolkit: 
Greta Thunberg Tweet:

Contribution of female power in rolling back of agricultural laws in

On 3 February, Greta Thunberg uploaded a document on Twitter which allegedly guided protestors about protests and on how to mobilise people against India and target Indian interests/embassies abroad. It contained actions taken up to 26 January 2021, future actions to undertake, hashtags which trended and would trend, celebrities who would be sympathetic to these protests and solidarity videos etc. She soon deleted the tweet saying that the document was "outdated and uploaded another toolkit to support protests, sparking a further row


According to Ties of India, an initial investigation by the Modi government into the source of Thunberg's toolkit revealed that it was put together by a Canadian pro-Khalistan organization based in Vancouver, and that the toolkit included a plan to continue the "malign Indian campaign" even if the laws were repealed. "This demonstrated how evil the entire campaign was," one official said.


Disha Ravi, a Bangalore Fridays for Future activist, was detained by Delhi Police on February 13 for allegedly producing and disseminating the toolkit. Additional Sessions Judge Dharmender Rana granted her bail on February 23, stating that the "offence of sedition cannot be invoked to minister to the wounded vanity of administrations." The Delhi Police had made little progress eight months later, according to the Indian Express, and police were unlikely to bring a charge-sheet against her, with one possibility being to close the case.


Some statistics on farmer’s death:  

Three members of the Bharatiya Janata Party were killed, and one BJP driver was killedOver 300 police officers were hurt during the Farmers' Republic Day parade (including stabbings)



Casualties and losses:

Samyukt Kisan Morcha has stated that until 10 July 2021 over 537 participants have died in the protest. In October and November 2021, BKU leader Rakesh Tikait stated that around 750 protestors had died


Fatalities, 2020: 

On 20 December, the death toll of farmers for the period 15 September to 20 December, according to media reports, was 41. 25 farmers died in Haryana, according to the Director-General of Police (heart attacks and cold 14, accident 10, suicide 1).  However, this estimate did not match the projected deaths in the ‘struggle' by Dr Darshan Pal, the farmer leader, who claims that 35 farmers died in the ‘struggle' during this time period.

Lastly, the estimated number of farmers and agricultural workers, who died between November 26, 2020 and October 26, 2021, was 600, according to the study. 



The three farm laws are not goofor farmers because loosening the grip of APMCs, the government risks the possibility of farmers receiving prices below the minimum support price (MSP). Hence, farmers and critics feared that eliminating monopoly of APMCs will soon pave way for abolishing MSP


However, another flaw in the proposal is the lack of policy support for farmers' produce transportation. At least 85% of the Indian farming population is made up of marginal farmers who lack access to markets and transportation.


Another problem is that big corporations are quite likely to bury farmers under an avalanche of legal resources. There is no doubting that farmers and corporations have vastly different access to legal resources, and there appears to be no actual statute in place to protect farmers' interests. 


By putting the market in the hands of large corporations, both farmers and consumers risk being exploited. Examples across the globe shows that when farmers were exposed to market forces, their incomes decreased rather than increased.

However, women's involvement in the movement has given it a whole new dimension. They've carried their diverse experiences of being landless laborer’s, losing husbands, dads, or sons to suicides, and having to pick up the responsibilities of farming, repaying debts, and claiming compensation with them.


The farm movement's claims on the state have grown as more women join. The movement is no longer just about protecting the state by lowering minimum support costs. The farm movement's demands for land for the landless, guaranteed minimum wages for farm labour, and equal pay for farm operations have been bolstered by women's experiences. Some women's previous work and advocacy as members of the Kisan Mazdoor Khudkushi Peedit Parivar Committee (Committee of Farmers and Labour Suicide Victim Families) confirms and legitimizes the demands.


The failure of previous movements' leadership to recognizewomen's participation and reform gender social relations was clearly on women's watch. They challenged the current leadership to recognize that if women had not joined the movement, it would only be half as strong, half as vibrant


National women's organizations wrote an open letter to Prime Minister Narendra Modi on Sunday, expressing concern over the impact of new farm laws on women in rural areas and expressing sympathy with farmers' struggles.


However, the impact of new farm laws will leave women farmers destitute, with little protection from the corporate lobby's unrelenting looting. These actions will result in the government's decentralized procurement being reduced and the public distribution system being dismantled. Women farmers from suicide-affected households are in a particularly precarious position. Land titles do not belong to women. As a result, they receive no assistance from governments in dealing with the double calamity of debts and suicide that has befallen them.


Lastlyone should not forget women account for 33% of the agricultural labor force and 48% of self-employed farmers, therefore their importance in the field cannot be overstated.




Image Source: Google 






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