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The land of India has been guided by the Constitution since 1950. Deriving sources from different countries’ constitutions, the Indian Constitution is an amalgamation of both rigid and flexible parts. The makers had kept in mind the socio-economic condition of the citizens back then in 1947. As the years passed, many articles came across amendments with the rising need of the hour. When it comes to women’s social status in India, it has seen many crests and troughs with the passage of time.

The Rig Vedic era was the one where both genders were at par, with the passing of time, the medieval era saw a fall in inequality for women and after independence, women could be seen in many top positions like president-ship, prime ministership, the speaker in Lok sabha, in the UNGA office, etc. Even though some women get a chance to make their places in the top office, there are many women who face atrocities like rape, acid attack, molestation, etc. on a daily basis.

The condition of women in India has always been a concern. She is in threat from the womb to the tomb. The threat of foeticide when in the womb, the threat of getting abused – mentally, physically at any stage of life till she survives. For the past few years, women have been trying to fight for equal status but are unable to get on par with men in society, in the workplace, etc.


Although the constitution is a guardian for every citizen, particular woman-guided rights need to be revised. Here are a few articles of the Indian constitution that establish equality for all citizens, especially women.

1.  Article 14 – there shall be equality before the law and equal protection of law conferred by the state. Equality before the law has been derived from the British constitution which has an absence of special privileges. Even the king and the layman are treated with the same set of laws. It means no person – rich or poor, high or low, official or non-official is above the law.

Equal protection of the law was taken from the American constitution which follows the pattern of like should be treated alike. Both the above rights take place only when the law is breached. No person can be punished without breaching the law.

2.  Article 15 – there shall be no discrimination by state i.e., government-led bodies on the basis of race, religion, caste, place of birth, or gender. Despite such measures, discrimination toward women is seen in the workplace. They tend to be not selected on the basis of their physical limitation. The criteria for their rejection are baseless. When the constitution is offering equal rights to every citizen, there should be no discrimination on the above-mentioned grounds. If one faces such kind of discrimination, they can always report and take action against it. In the same article, subsection; the state can male laws in favor of women and children for their upliftment.

3. Article 16 - there shall be no discrimination in Employment by state i.e., government-led bodies on the basis of race, religion, caste, place of birth, descent, gender, or place of residence. The government has few reservations for certain backward classes and women. Any of them who face issues of discrimination can exercise their right towards legal aid.

4.  Article 39 – along with Fundamental rights, there are a set of duties that the state should follow for the welfare of the citizens. This set of principles is called the Directive principles of state policy. This article covers the importance of having equal pay for equal work. If both the genders are working at the same place giving the same input, there should not be a difference in the pay scale. The work they are delivering is the same, and so should the pay. This makes the workplace and society gender-neutral and promotes women's empowerment. With equal pay range, motivation and desire to work at the same place are retained. This initiative has been adopted by countries like Norway awarding equal pay for equal work. In the news, the UK has put forth a decision of 4-day work with the same pay.  

5.  Article 42 – the directive principle of state policy allows for the provisions to be made by the state for securing just and humane conditions of work and maternity relief. In August 2016, the much-awaited decision and amendment of the Maternity benefit act, of 1961 took place. The amendment extended maternity leaves from 12 weeks to 26 weeks. This paid maternity leave extension provides a sense of relief to the new mother and her infant. With this landmark amendment, the mother does not have to juggle between work and her infant’s care like before. There are offices that offer crèche facilities and work-from-home provisions even after paid maternity leave. It is not universal that both mother and infant remain healthy after the delivery, if any kind of issue arises, the mother has to stay back for recovery even after the maternity leave.

CONS OF WOMEN EMPOWERMENT IN INDIA – in such a huge population of the country, women have remained marginalized in society due to many socio-economic constraints. Due to these constraints, women's growth in the political, social, and cultural sectors has been hindered. An educated woman can bring revolution to society from the grass-root level, but due to certain factors, her growth is hampered. Here are a few points which fall under the negative category –

1.  Women at Workplace – the supreme court of India has Vishakha guidelines for the safety of women in the workplace. Even the highest place of justice has observed the wrongdoings towards women working in an office. Women are discriminated against in employment based on their gender and physical capacity to work efficiently. The pay scale offered to them is lesser than that of male colleagues. A woman who aspires to work in their field of graduation or interest is usually not appreciated with appraisals, promotions, and bonuses. The biggest fear and nightmare for a woman is her sexual harassment. No matter what work time she follows, she always has to stay alarmed for her own safety and protection at the cost of her job. Amnesty International has mentioned in its report regarding women raped in an Indian jail. This puts a negative image in the international forum for a country like India which is excelling in sectors like defense and technology.

2. Work-life balance – a woman has to juggle between her personal and professional life. She cannot put anyone as a top priority. Apart from this, physiological changes and emotional stress always accompany her. Menstrual pain has brought a revolution in many countries' policies. The United Kingdom has introduced a four-day leave policy for women, whereas Spain, Australia, and Canada are pondering such policy execution.

3. Certain evils of society – the position of Muslim women is deteriorating due to the Shariat laws. The revolutionary verdict of the Supreme court of India for triple talaq has sent a sense of relief to many Muslim women. There are still certain laws to be eradicated like the nikah halala, etc. for establishing equality in the society for all religions.

The ICHHORI website has revolutionized the way of thinking and presenting information in a lucid manner. It covers almost every topic of women's health, laws, rights, and lifestyle.  

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