Planning to be a mother is the most cheerful and challenging stage in a woman’s life. Not only does she undergo physical changes but also has to face emotional and mental swings while the pregnancy and even after giving birth to the infant. The phase is cheerful as a woman will be introducing a newborn into this world. The phase is challenging because it needs more care, more patience, and a series of events that might not have been thought of. One of the events which no mother has ever planned or thought of is Infertility.

Not all intercourse results in pregnancy. Only and only when the sperm and ovum fuse in the Ampulla region in the Fallopian tube of a woman, Fertilisation occurs successfully. The fused cell undergoes a division process resulting in a zygote. At this stage, the gender of the child is already decided. After a further division process, the zygote differentiates into an Embryo, which in turn gets attached to the uterus. This entire process is called Implantation, which leads to Pregnancy.

A common condition in females which is faced by 10% of the population is Infertility. It is the inability to get a successful pregnancy even after trying for straight 12 months due to some limiting factors. In heterosexual couples, 1/3rd of issues are due to male problems, 1/3rd of issues are due to female problems and the rest 1/3rd remain miscellaneous. Infertility caused due to a woman’s limiting factor is called female infertility.

After implantation has occurred, with the uterine tissues and maternal blood, a structural and functional unit called Placenta is formed. The placenta connects the embryo/fetus with the maternal body. It facilitates the supply of oxygen and nutrients to the embryo and removes carbon dioxide and excretory products produced by the embryo. The placenta is connected to the Embryo via an Umbilical cord, which helps the transfer of nutrients to and fro.

To conceive, a woman needs to have a healthy female reproductive organ. It includes ovaries. The fallopian tube, uterus, etc. These organs play an important role in conceiving and pregnancy. Ovulation is the most important factor for a woman who is planning to conceive. Every month a woman of her reproductive age normally releases an egg for fertilization. If intercourse occurs during ovulation and sperm is successful enough to fertilize the egg, it results in fertilization. Due to certain reasons egg is not released regularly. These include a woman’s hormonal imbalance, eating disorder, disease like thyroid, severe stress, etc.


it is not the only limitation of women not being able to conceive, certain factors in men also result in infertility. Here are some signs of infertility in men discussed –

·         Hormonal imbalance – Testosterone is a prime hormone for male fertility, if there is a problem in the testes, it directly affects the production of the hormone resulting in infertility. Luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone induce the testes to produce sperm and testosterone. Any kind of the above imbalances in hormones can result in infertility.

·         Erectile dysfunction – physical issues, physiological factors, or hormonal imbalance can result in not getting an erection in men. This can affect intercourse and result in infertility.

·         Obesity – a balanced diet is always creating a home for a healthy body. The research was conducted, which observed that obesity in men leads to infertility. It directly affects sperm quality and sexual dysfunction.


·         Endometriosis - a woman can have a few glitches in her body, which become observable during her pregnancy. They include – cervical insufficiency, double uterus, surgeries, etc. Due to these reasons chances of infertility increase. Certain women who have been tested infertile have distinguished features like an abnormally shaped uterus, tumors in the uterus, narrow cervix, damaged cervix, etc. These factors affect primarily infertility. An important issue in implantation is the endometrium, the inner lining of the uterus. Sometimes the inner lining grows in some other region and its removal becomes necessary. The surgical removal of the tissue can cause scars and blockage in the fallopian tube, which results in hindrance in uniting egg and sperm. This condition is called endometriosis. If a woman is suffering from pain during sex, it is a sign of health problems. Examples of health issues include infection, endometriosis, etc.

·         Abnormal menstruation – period problems include cycles of less than 21 days of absence for 35 days, heavy flow, or lighter than normal. Amenorrhea is a condition in which women’s periods have completely stopped. Excluding the condition of pregnancy, breastfeeding, and menopause, women face such conditions as an abnormality of menstruation. Oligomenorrhea is a condition in which periods occur infrequently. This condition is observed in many women of different ages. Proper medication can resolve the issue. Dysmenorrhea is a condition in which a woman faces painful cramps and discomfort. Abnormal menstruation is a prime factor hampering fertility in a woman. It should be treated before trying to conceive.

·         Hormonal issues – hormones like estrogen, progesterone, relaxin, Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), and Human Placental lactogen (HPl) play an important role in pregnancy. Due to hormonal imbalance, ovulation is not triggered timely which leads to infertility.

·         Underlying medical conditions like PCOS - A woman undergoes several changes in her body since she attains puberty. A regular menstruation cycle is a sign of a healthy reproductive organ. Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) is a common endocrine disorder observed in women of reproductive age between 14- 47.  A woman does secrete a few amounts of male hormones called Androgen in normal conditions but during PCOS the amount increases manifold. In the case of PCOS primarily affects the menstrual cycle of a woman, to overcome this, one can with the help of expert opinion take medicine to regulate the hormonal imbalance. A disease diagnosed and treated at a primary stage can always be taken under control. The woman who is facing such issues should always keep patience and faith in the expert as well as herself. Such kinds of disorders are seen in many women; at least one out of eight women undergo PCOS or PCOD in their entire life. The infertility issue can be done right with fertility drugs, and treatment. Ovulation induction also occurs via oral medicine. Surrogacy and adoption also arise as a boon for those who have not been left with many options.

The ICHHORI website is bringing a breakthrough revolution in women-related health and lifestyle issues. It covers almost every topic a woman should know in any age group. Every question is answered lucidly and breaks taboos.

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