A common condition in females faced by 10% of the population is Infertility. It is the inability to get a successful pregnancy even after trying for straight 12 months due to some limiting factors. In heterosexual couples, 1/3rd of issues are due to male problems, 1/3rd of issues are due to female problems, and the rest 1/3rd remain miscellaneous. Infertility caused due to a woman’s limiting factor is called female infertility.

Not all intercourse results in pregnancy. Only and only when the sperm and ovum fuse in the Ampulla region in the Fallopian tube of a woman, Fertilisation occurs successfully. The fused cell undergoes a division process resulting in a zygote. At this stage, the gender of the child is already decided. After a further division process, the zygote differentiates into an Embryo, which in turn gets attached to the uterus. This entire process is called Implantation, which leads to Pregnancy.

Planning to be a mother is the most cheerful and challenging stage in a woman’s life. Not only does she undergo physical changes but also has to face emotional and mental swings while the pregnancy and even after giving birth to the infant. The phase is cheerful as a woman will be introducing a newborn into this world. The phase is challenging because it needs more care, more patience, and a series of events that might not have been thought of. One of the events which no mother has ever planned or thought of is Infertility.

After implantation has occurred, with the uterine tissues and maternal blood, a structural and functional unit called Placenta is formed. The placenta connects the embryo/fetus with the maternal body. It facilitates the supply of oxygen and nutrients to the embryo and removes carbon dioxide and excretory products produced by the embryo. The placenta is connected to the Embryo via an Umbilical cord, which helps the transfer of nutrients to and fro.

To conceive, a woman needs to have a healthy female reproductive organ. It includes ovaries. The fallopian tube, uterus, etc. These organs play an important role in conceiving and pregnancy. Ovulation is the most important factor for a woman who is planning to conceive. Every month a woman of her reproductive age normally releases an egg for fertilization. If intercourse occurs during ovulation and sperm is successful enough to fertilize the egg, it results in fertilization. Due to certain reasons egg is not released regularly. These include a woman’s hormonal imbalance, eating disorder, disease like thyroid, severe stress, etc.

Infertility is not only on the woman’s side; it also can be on the men's. Infertility in men is caused due to problems like varicocele; in this condition veins on men’s testicles become too large which heats up the testicles resulting in abnormality in the number and shape of sperms. The count of sperm is less or not at all if a man is infertile. All these conditions arise due to heavy drug abuse, cigarette, age, chemotherapy, etc.


infertility is observed in both genders. The failure to achieve pregnancy after trying for more than a year has affected more than 48 million couples worldwide. There are mainly two types of infertility observed –

·         Primary infertility – it occurs in a woman who had no previous pregnancy and was unable to conceive for a year. Here are certain factors that contribute to primary female infertility.

1.      Abnormal menstruation – period problems include cycles of less than 21 days of absence for 35 days, heavy flow, or lighter than normal. Amenorrhea is a condition in which women’s periods have completely stopped. Excluding the condition of pregnancy, breastfeeding, and menopause, women face such conditions as the abnormality of menstruation. Oligomenorrhea is a condition in which periods occur infrequently. This condition is observed in many women of different ages. Proper medication can resolve the issue. Dysmenorrhea is a condition in which a woman faces painful cramps and discomfort. Abnormal menstruation is a prime factor hampering fertility in a woman. It should be treated before trying to conceive.

2.      PCOS - A woman undergoes several changes in her body since she attains puberty. A regular menstruation cycle is a sign of a healthy reproductive organ. Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) is a common endocrine disorder observed in women of reproductive age between 14- 47.  A woman does secrete a few amounts of male hormones called Androgen in normal conditions but during PCOS the amount increases manifold. In the case of PCOS primarily affects the menstrual cycle of a woman, to overcome this, one can with the help of expert opinion take medicine to regulate the hormonal imbalance. A disease diagnosed and treated at a primary stage can always be taken under control. The woman who is facing such issues should always keep patience and faith in the expert as well as herself. Such kinds of disorders are seen in many women; at least one out of eight women undergo PCOS or PCOD in their entire life. The infertility issue can be done right with fertility drugs, and treatment. Ovulation induction also occurs via oral medicine. Surrogacy and adoption also arise as a boon for those who have not been left with many options.

3.      Blocked fallopian tube -Damage to the fallopian tube is a cause of infertility in women. In this condition, sperm is hindered to reach the egg, or the fertilized egg is blocked from reaching the uterus. This occurs due to a damaged or blocked fallopian tube. Certain surgeries and sexually transmitted diseases like Gonorrhoea, Chlamydia, etc. are factors affecting a damaged fallopian tube.

·         Secondary Infertility – this kind of infertility is the inability to conceive a child after one pregnancy. The first pregnancy in this case would have occurred naturally without any help of medication or in vitro fertilization (IVF). Secondary infertility is diagnosed after trying to conceive for six months to one year and being unsuccessful in it. Most of the factors are similar to that of primary female infertility. Here are a few factors hindering fertility in women.

1.      Poor egg condition - a woman is born with n number of eggs which are released every month after she attains puberty. Due to some other reasons, there results in a shortage of eggs released before menopause which results in infertility. This situation is called primary ovarian insufficiency. It can occur due to a genetic defect or chemotherapy. There can be issues in the egg also; having a wrong number of chromosomes, cannot fertilize and grow into a healthy fetus, etc. The reducing fertility after the age of 30 is observed in women which increases the complications while conceiving. Thus experts advise planning a family before both parents exceed the age of 30. With the increase in age, the count of eggs reduces with degrading quality. This makes conceiving more difficult and the chances of infertility increase.

2.      Endometriosis - a woman can have a few glitches in her body, which become observable during her pregnancy. They include – cervical insufficiency, double uterus, surgeries, etc. Due to these reasons chances of infertility increase. Certain women who have been tested infertile have distinguished features like an abnormally shaped uterus, tumors in the uterus, narrow cervix, damaged cervix, etc. These factors affect primarily infertility. An important issue in implantation is the endometrium, the inner lining of the uterus. Sometimes the inner lining grows in some other region and its removal becomes necessary. The surgical removal of the tissue can cause scars and blockage in the fallopian tube, which results in hindrance in uniting egg and sperm. This condition is called endometriosis.

3.  Women’ age factor - as a woman's age increases, her chances of getting pregnant reduce. The prime reasons for infertility are that the number of eggs is lower and the chances of abnormality in the egg are more. Health factor also affects infertility at a higher age. Women at higher ages are unable to do certain exercises and follow a diet.


Infertility is a natural phenomenon; it is not under anyone’s control. This does not stop a woman from being a mother for the rest of her life.

1.  In vitro fertilization (IVF) – with the advent of biotechnology, a test tube baby has now become a ray of hope to parents with few complications.

2.  Surrogacy – a woman with a defective mitochondrion has issues with conceiving and becoming a mother, if a healthy mitochondria donor from a woman is received, motherhood can be experienced. Surrogacy laws have now become stricter due to violations and exploitation of the surrogate mother. Parents plan a child in a surrogate and then abandon her, leaving the surrogate woman frustrated and aimless.

3.  Adoption – so many children have been abandoned due to certain reasons and they end up in an orphanage. Adopting a child does not only give a home and shelter but also builds the future of the child.

A woman's condition becomes helpless and lowest when she is unable to conceive. All that can help is regular counseling, firm family support, and compassion to rebuild her trust. Alternative methods like those mentioned above can also help a woman become a mother.

The ICHHORI website is bringing a breakthrough revolution in women-related health and lifestyle issues. It covers almost every topic a woman should know in any age group. Every question is answered lucidly and breaks taboos.

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