What is sterility in a woman?

 What is sterility in a woman?

Infertility affects approximately 5% to 10% of women. In other cases, no abnormality in the female genital organs can be found, and infertility is considered to be caused by either aberrant genital system physiological function or faulty ovarian genetic development.

Ovulation problems

Failure to ovulate is the most common cause of female sterility. This failure can be caused by gonadotropic hormone hyposecretion, in which case the intensity of the hormonal cues is simply insufficient to trigger ovulation, or it can be caused by faulty ovaries that prevent ovulation.

Special procedures are frequently employed to evaluate whether ovulation occurs in infertile women due to the high occurrence of anovulation.

Because the normal increase in progesterone secretion does not normally occur during the second part of anovulatory cycles, these approaches rely heavily on the effects of progesterone on the body. The cycle can be presumed to be anovulatory in the absence of progestational influences. One of these tests is to look for a spike in pregnanediol, a byproduct of progesterone metabolism, in the urine during the second part of the reproductive cycle; the absence of this material implies ovulation failure. Another typical test involves the woman keeping track of her body temperature during the course of her cycle. The secretion of progesterone during the second part of the cycle boosts the body temperature by around 0.5°F, with the surge occurring abruptly at ovulation.


Endometriosis, a frequent disorder in which endometrial tissue nearly identical to that of the normal uterine endometrium grows and even menstruates in the pelvic cavity around the uterus, fallopian tubes, and ovaries, is one of the most prevalent causes of female sterility. Endometriosis creates fibrosis across the pelvis, which can encase the ovaries to the point where they can’t be expelled into the abdominal cavity. Endometriosis frequently obstructs the fallopian tubes, either at the fimbriated ends or further along their length.


The most prevalent symptom of sterility is inability to conceive. If your monthly cycle is abnormally long (35 days or more), too short (less than 21 days), irregular, or missing, you may not be ovulating. There could be no additional signs or symptoms.


In order for pregnancy to occur, every step of the human reproduction process must go smoothly. The steps in this procedure are as follows:

• One of the two ovaries releases a mature egg.

• The egg is picked up by the fallopian tube and transported to the uterus.

• Sperm fertilise the egg by travelling up the cervix, into the uterus, and into the fallopian tube.

• The fertilised egg travels through the fallopian tube to the uterus.

• The fertilised egg grows and attaches to the inside of the uterus (implants).

At any time, a range of reasons can obstruct this process in women. One or more of the following reasons contribute to female infertility:

  1. Damage to fallopian tubes (tubal infertility)

Damaged or obstructed fallopian tubes prevent sperm from reaching the egg or prevent the fertilised egg from entering the uterus. Damage or obstruction of the fallopian tube can be caused by a variety of factors, including:

  • An infection of the uterus and fallopian tubes caused by chlamydia, gonorrhoea, or other sexually transmitted infections causes pelvic inflammatory disease.

  • Previous abdominal or pelvic surgery, such as surgery for ectopic pregnancy, which occurs when a fertilised egg implants and grows elsewhere other than the uterus, generally in a fallopian tube.

  1. Uterine or cervical causes

Several uterine or cervical factors can prevent the egg from implanting or raise the chances of miscarriage:

  • In the uterus, benign polyps or tumours (fibroids or myomas) are frequent. Some can obstruct fallopian tubes or prevent implantation, reducing fertility. Many women with fibroids or polyps do, however, become pregnant.

  • Problems with the uterus, such as an abnormally shaped uterus, might make it difficult to get pregnant or bear children.

  • Cervical stenosis is a constriction of the cervix caused by a hereditary abnormality or cervix damage.

  • The cervix doesn’t always create the right type of mucus to allow sperm to pass through and into the uterus.

The cause of infertility is sometimes never discovered. Unexpected reproductive issues could be caused by a combination of small variables in both partners. Although it’s aggravating to receive no precise response, this issue will eventually resolve itself. Infertility therapy, on the other hand, should not be put off.

Risk factors

Infertility can be exacerbated by a number of circumstances, including:

  • Age: The quality and quantity of a woman’s eggs start to deteriorate as she gets older. The rate of follicle loss accelerates in the mid-30s, leading in fewer and lower-quality eggs. This makes it more difficult to conceive and raises the chances of miscarriage.

  • Smoking: Smoking raises your chances of miscarriage and ectopic pregnancy, in addition to harming your cervix and fallopian tubes. It’s also known to prematurely age your ovaries and reduce your eggs. Before starting fertility treatment, you should quit smoking.

  • Weight: Ovulation might be hampered by being overweight or considerably underweight. Increasing the frequency of ovulation and the likelihood of conception by achieving a healthy body mass index (BMI).

  • Sexual history: The fallopian tubes can be damaged by sexually transmitted illnesses including chlamydia and gonorrhoea. Having unprotected intercourse with several partners raises your risk of contracting a sexually transmitted infection, which can lead to fertility issues in the future.

  • Alcohol: Excessive alcohol use might have a negative impact on fertility.


These suggestions may be useful for women who are planning to become pregnant soon or in the future:

  • Ovulation issues are more common in overweight and underweight women. Moderate exercise is recommended if you need to lose weight. Ovulation has been linked to strenuous, intensive activity for more than five hours per week.

  • Stop smoking. Tobacco has a number of detrimental impacts on fertility, general health, and the health of a foetus. If you’re thinking about starting a family, now is the time to quit smoking.

  • Avoid consuming alcoholic beverages. Heavy drinking can lead to a loss of fertility. And any alcohol consumption during pregnancy can have a negative impact on the fetus’s health. Avoid alcohol if you’re planning to become pregnant, and don’t drink while you’re pregnant.

  • According to certain research, stress might lead to couples having less success with infertility therapy. Before attempting to conceive, try to lower your stress levels.

Infertility can be both physically and emotionally draining. Consider the following techniques to cope with the ups and downs of infertility testing and treatment:

  • To assist you and your partner in preparing for your therapy, ask your doctor to describe the steps. Understanding the procedure may help you feel less anxious.

  • Although infertility is a highly personal matter, seek help from your partner, close relatives and friends, or a professional. Many online support groups allow you to talk about infertility concerns without having to reveal your identity.

  • Maintaining a moderate exercise programme and eating a nutritious diet will help you maintain a positive attitude and keep you focused on living your life despite your fertility issues.

  • Early on in the infertility treatment process, consider alternatives such as adoption, donor sperm or eggs, or perhaps having no children. This can help with anxiety during treatments and disappointment if you don’t get pregnant.

Sterility is a very stressful situation. Reach out to your healthcare practitioner if you’ve been trying to get pregnant for 12 months without success — or six months if you’re over 35. Once you’ve been diagnosed, your healthcare practitioner can assist you in devising a strategy for going forward.


  1. https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/female-infertility/symptoms-causes/syc-20354308#:~:text=Overview,one%2Dthird%20of%20the%20time.

  2. https://www.sciencedirect.com/topics/pharmacology-toxicology-and-pharmaceutical-science/female-sterility

  3. https://my.clevelandclinic.org/health/diseases/17774-female-infertility

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